Friday, December 27, 2013

Thus forming an eight-and-a-half inch square in the center

Thus forming an eight-and-a-half inch square in the center



On the wrong side, find the center of the paper twenty inches by fifteen inches by drawing both diagonals. Measure four and one-fourth inches from the center toward the sides. Draw straight lines passing through these points connecting opposite sides, thus forming an eight-and-a-half inch square in the center. Cut out the four corners on these lines. Fold in the four sides on the lines of the square. A strap, which will fasten the case by slipping through a slit cut in the opposite side, is to be made on one of the long flaps as follows:

Place a point at the middle on the edge of the flap, and measure an inch along the edge on both sides of this point. Measure down two inches from these last points and place dots. Connect these dots by straight lines with the top and sides. Cut the corners out on these lines. Trim the end of the strap to a point beginning one-half inch from the corners and cutting to the center point.



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A Folding Envelope Case For Papers.

A Folding Envelope Case For Papers.


Materials: Strong felt paper, or its substitute; (a sheet 20" × 30" cut through the center the short way will make two cases. If two harmonious colors be selected, the corners cut from one case can be used to decorate another); book cloth in one-inch strips for binding; glue. Use tooth-picks in applying the glue.


BACK AND FRONT VIEWS OF A FOLDING ENVELOPE CASE FOR PAPERS.


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A Blank Book With Paper Cover Re-inforced With Cloth.

A Blank Book With Paper Cover Re-inforced With Cloth.



A BLANK BOOK.

Materials: Strong felt paper 9" × 10"; book cloth for back 10" × 3¼", for corners 4 pieces 2" × 1¾"; lining paper for covers, 2 sheets 4¼" × 9½"; number of sheets of paper desired for the book 8½" × 9½"; coarse thread; coarse needle; glue. Use tooth-picks in applying the glue.

Connect these points with straight lines



Draw a line on the felt paper through the middle the long way and fold on the line. Measure on the outside one and one-fourth inches from the corners along both edges, and place points. Connect these points with straight lines. Place the long edge of the cloth corner to this line, and fold it over the corner and crease. Remove and trim it even before gluing on. Put the glue always on the cloth and use as little as possible. Crease the strip of book-cloth for the back, through the center, but do not glue in place until after the leaves are sewed in. Fold the sheets of paper through the center of the book. Follow the same directions for sewing the leaves together as given in the description of "A Child's Picture Book," . Finish by gluing the paper lining on the inside of the cover and the strip of book-cloth down the back.

This book could be made any size or shape, and decorated as desired.



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Find the center of the card by drawing both diagonals

Find the center of the card by drawing both diagonals



Find the center of the card by drawing both diagonals. Measure two and one-half inches from the center toward the sides. Draw straight lines passing through these points connecting opposite edges, thus forming a five-inch square in the center. Cut out the corners on these lines. Hold the edge of a ruler firmly to the lines of the square and bend the cardboard. Fold the strip of cloth or tape through the center and put the glue on this, using very little, and taking care to keep it back from the edge. Cover the corners with the cloth. Cut a strip of the colored paper twenty-one inches by two and three-fourth inches. Put a very little glue on the outside of the box and cover with the colored paper. Turn over the edges and glue them down. Follow the same directions for making the cover, measuring two and five-eighth inches from the center of the seven-inch square of cardboard. Cover the sides and top with the colored paper, the strip for the sides being twenty-two inches by one and one-half inches, and the top a five-inch square. This box can be made in any size or shape, the same general plan being followed.



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A Box With Cover.

A Box With Cover.


Materials: Cardboard for foundation 9" × 9"; cover 7" × 7"; colored paper for covering; strips of cloth or glue-tape for staying corners; glue. Use tooth-picks in applying the glue.


NO. 1 AND NO. 2 ONE-PIECE BOXES.
NO. 3. TWO-PIECE BOX. BOX AND COVER ALIKE.

GROUP OF BOXES.


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Mark three holes on the fold with the needle

Mark three holes on the fold with the needle



1. Mark three holes on the fold with the needle, one in the middle and one two inches above it, and another two inches below it.

2. Tie a large knot two inches from the end of the thread.

3. Insert the needle at the lowest hole, from the inside, and draw it through leaving two inches of the thread to tie.

4. Pass over the middle hole and down through the upper one, out through the middle hole on one side of the long thread, and back through the same hole on the other side of the thread, and tie the two ends of the thread together.

Paste a pretty card or large picture on the outside for the cover. Page the book with neat figures and write the name of the child for whom the book is designed on the inside of the cover. Arrange and paste in the pictures neatly.



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Paper, cloth and cardboard construction. A Child's Picture Book.

Paper, cloth and cardboard construction. A Child's Picture Book.


A Child's Picture Book.


Materials: Pink, blue or yellow paper cambric 27 inches; coarse thread; coarse needle; bright, pretty pictures which the children have cut from papers, magazines, cards, etc.; paste.

Fold the cloth through the center with the warp and cut on the fold. Fold both strips into three equal pieces with the woof, and cut. Fold each piece through the center parallel to the selvedge. Place two pieces together and pin at the fold, and "pink" through the four thicknesses, around the edges with a "pinking iron." Do the same with the other pieces. When finished place them all together and stitch at the fold at follows:



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Give careful heed to the selection of color

Give careful heed to the selection of color



Give careful heed to the selection of color, not only to the dress but to the accessories, hat, gloves, collar, belt and shoes, as well. In fact, consider the costume as a whole made up of parts, each one of which must harmonize with every other.

Before sewing machines were to be found in every home and ready made clothing in the stores styles did not change so rapidly. Commercial conditions now make it to the advantage of a great army of people that the styles in dress change often and radically. The manufacturers of cloth, the wholesale merchants with their agents, the retailers and their numerous clerks, wholesale garment-makers and their many employes, pattern-makers, dress-makers, milliners and the manufacturers of all minor articles of clothing are all benefitted by this oft recurring change in style. This condition has come about so gradually that we hardly realize to what extent we are victims of trade-tricks. It is not necessary nor desirable that woman should enslave herself to follow all the vagaries of style.


CHILD'S PICTURE BOOK.


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A short stout person should avoid plaids

A short stout person should avoid plaids



Some colors and styles are becoming to certain complexions and forms and are quite the reverse to others. A short stout person should avoid plaids, while one overly tall should never select stripes. The lines of the garment are equally important any method of trimming that gives length, the long lines of the "princess" and the "empire" styles are a boon to the short figure, while the overskirt, the deep flounce, and the bands of trimming running around the skirt, all help to break the long lines for the tall woman. Belts that by contrast divide the figure are not good unless one wishes to shorten the height. Waists and skirts of the same color usually have more style and give better form.



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Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy

Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy



"Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy," wrote Shakespeare, and the advice still holds good. Economy does not consist, however, of buying cheap, shoddy material. Trimming can be dispensed with to the improvement of the average garment, but a dress made of good cloth will out-wear, look better, give greater self-respect, and in the end cost less than several dresses made of cheap stuff, as the cost of making is no more for the one than the other. This is a principle that applies as well to underwear. Simple garments, well made of firm fine cambric are much to be preferred to those overtrimmed with cheap lace and sleazy embroidery.



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Neatness should be considered above beauty or style

Neatness should be considered above beauty or style



Neatness should be considered above beauty or style. A soiled collar, hooks, eyes and buttons missing, gloves out at finger ends, shoes dusty and unpolished, braid hanging from the skirt, the waist and skirt separated are all accidents which may befall anyone, but are most deplorable when they become chronic.

It has been wisely said that the best dressed woman is she of whose clothing one is unconscious, whose dress is neither conspicuous from extreme style nor too noticeable from a total disregard of the custom of the times. Good taste demands that one be not overdressed. Street and business suits and young girls' school dresses should be plain, well made and neat, of subdued and becoming color.



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While a due regard to the opinions of

While a due regard to the opinions of



While a due regard to the opinions of others demands a certain conformity to the customs of the time and place in which one lives, there is always a latitude allowed which enables one to exercise individual needs, taste and preference.

Health and comfort should take rank before everything else. A style which interferes with either is an absurdity which anyone of good sense will avoid.



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Clothing was first designed in the early ages

Clothing was first designed in the early ages



Clothing was first designed in the early ages, no doubt, as a covering and protection to the body; it has come, however, to mean something more than this. It is an expression of the character, the nicety of taste or lack of it the discrimination and judgment of the individual. In the selection of one's garments there are a number of points which must be taken into consideration, such as health and comfort, cost, fitness, color and style, as well as beauty. And above all, the average woman must pause and consider last season's garments, that are too good to be discarded and must form a part of this year's wardrobe. It is quite disastrous to plunge ahead and buy a blue dress, because blue happens to be stylish, if the hat to be worn with it is a green or brown "left over."



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Art on paper is the preparation for a journey packing the suitcase

Art on paper is the preparation for a journey packing the suitcase



Art on paper is the preparation for a journey packing the suitcase, as it were, necessary but toilsome; the application of art principles to the problems of real life, the delightful excursion, opening the eyes to real beauty and its possibilities. May the children in our schools have something more than the drudgery of preparation.



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An artist who paints the human figure

An artist who paints the human figure



An artist who paints the human figure, draws and erases and draws again, and yet again, that the contour of the form he creates may be right in proportion and graceful in line. He studies his coloring, he compares, rejects and blends for a particular shade or tint that makes for complete harmony. No discordant note of color nor turn of line that detracts from the beauty of the whole is allowed. And there are artistic makers-of-garments who put into the costumes they create the same thought and care that the artist spends upon his canvas, but the prices of both are within the reach of very few. Nearly every woman must plan her own wardrobe and choose the furnishings for her home and this is what "Art" and "Domestic Art" in the public schools should train the girl of to-day the woman of the future to do.



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Dress, and its relation to art.

Dress, and its relation to art.


Art education should bring to every girl a greater appreciation of beauty and a sufficient knowledge to enable her to beautify her home and to dress herself becomingly. This is the real "applied art" or "applied design" of which we have heard much but seen little.

The power and skill necessary to originate an intricate and artistic design, and a technical knowledge of color-blending are worth something to the individual, but the ability to apply this knowledge later to the decoration of her home and to the selection of her own wardrobe is of vastly greater importance.



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The general treatment of the cloth is practically the same

The general treatment of the cloth is practically the same



While the finish may differ, the general treatment of the cloth is practically the same. The first step is called pulling, when the cloth is soaked in hot water and pulled by a pulling machine. It is soaked, pulled and beaten until it is only half its original length and breadth. It is then rinsed and stretched on a frame where it will dry without a wrinkle. At this time the nap is raised by beating the cloth with the spike head of the teasel plant or its substitute. The pile or nap is then trimmed so as to present a uniform surface, when it is wound tightly around a huge drum and immersed in hot water. Finally it is pressed in a hydraulic press, during which time steam is forced through it. This is to give solidity and smoothness to the cloth and also to add luster to the finished fabric.



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Among the principal varieties are

Among the principal varieties are



A variety of effects can also be produced by the character of the finish. Among the principal varieties are:

1. The dress face finish, such as broadcloth and beaver.
2. The velvet finish.
3. The Scotch or Melton finish.
4. The bare face finish, which has the nap completely sheared off.


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There are two classes of woolen textiles

There are two classes of woolen textiles



Woolens. There are two classes of woolen textiles, woolens and worsteds, depending upon the character of the fiber used, and the treatment to which it is subjected. The shorter varieties of wool are used in woolens, while the long fibers are combed out and used for the worsteds. In making woolen yarns the wool is simply carded and very loosely spun, but in making worsted thread the wool is combed out and hard twisted. Owing to the nap of the woolen goods the weaving is scarcely visible, but in the manufacture of worsteds the weave is evident and a great variety of designs is possible.



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The wool is harsh to the touch after it has been scoured

The wool is harsh to the touch after it has been scoured



The wool is harsh to the touch after it has been scoured, owing to the removal of the yolk. To restore its natural softness it is slightly sprinkled with oil during the process of mixing.

Carding and Spinning. The process of carding produces a thread having fibers projecting loosely from the main thread in little ends which form the nap of the finished cloth. After it is carded it is wound on spools and is ready for the spinning. In spinning the threads are held together by their scales and the waviness of the fiber which prevents them from untwisting. Another valuable feature of wool is its elasticity, which makes it soft to the touch and this is retained in the manufactured goods.



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Alpaca and Mohair are classed as wools

Alpaca and Mohair are classed as wools



Alpaca and Mohair are classed as wools, but the former is produced by the Alpaca goat and the latter by the Angora goat. Cashmere wool comes from the Cashmere goat, found in Thibet, and is very costly, as only the finest parts of the fleece are used. In the far eastern countries beautiful, costly fabrics are made from the long hair of the camel.

Preparation. When wool comes to the factory in the raw state it must be scoured. This is done by passing it through machines containing strong soap suds, and afterwards rinsing it. After the wool is dry it is mixed or blended. Mixing is an operation of great importance and is done to make the wool of uniform quality. Portions of wool from different lots, qualities and colors are placed in alternate layers and blended. If it is desired to mix other materials with the wool, such as silk, cotton or shoddy, it is added at this time.



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There are three classes of wool

There are three classes of wool



Classification. There are three classes of wool, classified according to the length, fineness and felting qualities:

1. The carding or clothing wool.
2. The combing or worsted wool.
3. The blanket or carpet wool.

Wool on different parts of the same animal varies greatly, that on the shoulders being the finest and most even. All unwashed wool contains a fatty or greasy matter called yolk or suint. This keeps the fiber from matting together and also protects the fleece from injury. The yolk must be removed before the wool is manufactured into cloth. When the fleece is cut from the body of the sheep it sticks together so that it can be spread out like the hide of an animal, and each fleece is tied in a separate bundle. A few years ago sheep shearing was done by hand. This was a busy time, especially on large ranches where thousands of sheep were to be sheared and it required a large crew to do the work. It is now accomplished with much less time, labor and expense by machinery.



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Wool is the fleecy covering of sheep.

Wool.


Wool is the fleecy covering of sheep. It is distinguished by its waviness and the scaly covering of the fibers. The scales are more pointed and protrude more than those of hair. This gives it a tendency to mat or felt. The waviness of wool is due to the spiral structure of the fibers. Next to cotton, wool is the most extensively used of all the textile fibers.

The Romans developed a breed of sheep having wool of exceeding fineness, and later introduced their sheep into Spain. Here they were still further improved, and it was not many years until Spain led the world in the production of wool. The fine wooled Merino sheep originated here. Australia and the United States are also great wool-producing countries.



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Linen is chiefly manufactured in France

Linen is chiefly manufactured in France



Linen is chiefly manufactured in France, Belgium, Germany, England and the United States. France is noted for the finest kinds of lawn and cambric, while Ireland excels in the production of table linen. The largest portion of the sheeting and toweling is made in Scotland. The linen manufactures of the United States consist principally of toweling and twine.



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It is now one of the national industries

It is now one of the national industries



For many centuries the weaving of linen was conducted as a household industry. The first attempt to manufacture it on a large scale was in England in 1253. It is now one of the national industries. Linen is bleached after it is woven. In the olden times it was spread upon the grass, or lawn, and the action of the sun, air and moisture whitened it, and for this reason it was called "lawn," and it is still so designated. In the modern process of bleaching, the linen is first singed by being passed rapidly over hot cylinders which makes the cloth smooth. It is then boiled in lime water, washed and afterwards scoured in a solution of sulphuric acid, exposed to the air for a time and again scoured. Lastly, it is boiled in soda-lye water and dried over hot tin rollers. The gloss on linen is made by first mangling, then starching, and finally running it between heavy rollers.



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Being drawn and twisted and drawn out again

Being drawn and twisted and drawn out again



The treatment of the flax fiber for spinning is similar to that of the cotton (), being drawn and twisted and drawn out again, repeating this process several times.

Spinning. Coarse and heavy yarns are spun dry, but fine yarn must be spun wet. Some varieties of velvet and velveteen are made from linen. Much of the so-called linen cloth of the present day is mixed with cotton or jute. The principles of weaving are the same as that of the cotton. See .



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Linseed oil is expressed from the seed

Linseed oil is expressed from the seed



The fiber of the bark is the part of the plant used in the manufacture of cloth. Linseed oil is expressed from the seed.

The Preparation of the Fiber. When the plant is ripe it is pulled up by the roots and beaten to loosen the seeds which are then shaken out. Next the stems are steeped in soft water and afterward allowed to ferment. They are then dried and passed between fluted rollers which breaks the woody part of the stems which are again beaten to remove this woody part from the fiber. The fiber is then made into bundles and sent to the mill to be spun, where it is first roughly sorted, the longest and best portions being separated from the short raveled ones. These inferior portions are called "tow."



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Flax grows from two to three feet high

Flax grows from two to three feet high



The Plant. Flax grows from two to three feet high, and has a blue flower. A field of flax in blossom is very beautiful.

While it is grown extensively in many parts of Europe, Asia and America, the soil and climate of Ireland, France and the Netherlands are especially adapted to its growth, and it is in these countries that it reaches its greatest perfection.



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Flax

Flax.


The fibers of flax are spun and woven into a fabric called linen. This is one of the most ancient industries known to man. Linen is often mentioned in the Bible and the ancient Egyptians wrapped their mummies in this fabric. It is said that the finest linen of the present day looks coarse beside that from the Egyptian looms in the days of the Pharaohs. The Hebrew and Egyptian priests wore garments made of this fine linen.



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Two systems of spinning are in use at the present time

Two systems of spinning are in use at the present time



Spinning. Two systems of spinning are in use at the present time, ring spinning and self-acting mule spinning. The former is done mostly by women and children, and produces a hard, round irregular yarn. The latter machines, operated only by men and very strong women, are complicated, but produce an exceedingly soft and fine yarn.

The thread used for sewing and for the manufacture of lace is made by twisting several fine threads together. Sewing thread is usually composed of from six to nine threads spun separately and then twisted into one. Thread is sometimes passed very rapidly through a flame which burns off the fuzz making it very smooth.

Weaving. Three operations are necessary in the manufacture of cloth; First, the separation of the warp threads on the loom, so that the shuttle containing the woof can pass through. Second, the movement of the shuttle, back and forth, among the warp threads. Third, the beating up the woof.



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And is then ready for shipping

And is then ready for shipping



After the seeds are removed the cotton is put up into bales weighing about five hundred pounds each, and is then ready for shipping. When these bales are received at the factory the cotton is so closely matted together that it must be broken up or loosened. This is done in the blending room where it is first run through heavily weighted and spiked rollers which pull the cotton apart. It is then blended or mixed to make it of uniform quality. After this it is taken to the carding room. Here the fibers are drawn parallel to one another and bits of leaves and unripe fibers removed, when it is put through the drawing frame, consisting of a pair of rollers. These parallel, untwisted fibers are now called "slivers." From the drawing frame these "slivers" go to the slubbing machines where it is lightly twisted and wound on bobbins. This process is repeated on similar machines each one drawing the thread out and twisting it a little more, until it is finally ready for spinning.



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Until the cotton gin was invented in 1793

Until the cotton gin was invented in 1793



The Preparation of the Fiber. After the cotton is picked it is taken to the gin which separates the fiber from the seed. Until the cotton gin was invented in 1793, by a Connecticut teacher, then living in Georgia, the cultivation of cotton was not profitable, as one person could only clear the seeds from five or six pounds a day. This machine has revolving teeth which drag the cotton between parallel wires, leaving the seeds behind. With this machine a slave could clean about a thousand pounds in a day. This gave a wonderful impetus to the cotton industry, and its cultivation increased enormously.



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The most of the cotton crop is planted by the twentieth of May

The most of the cotton crop is planted by the twentieth of May



Cotton thrives best in a rich, deep soil with a hot, steamy atmosphere. It should have plenty of moisture while growing and a dryer period during the ripening and gathering of the crop. The most of the cotton crop is planted by the twentieth of May. Six weeks after it begins blossoming the first bolls are ready for picking. This is done by hand, and as the bolls do not all ripen at the same time, it is necessary to go over the field many times, and the picking often lasts until the middle of December. The cotton is gathered into baskets hung from the shoulders of the pickers.



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The plant grows from seven to ten feet high

The plant grows from seven to ten feet high



The plant grows from seven to ten feet high. The leaves are sprinkled with small black dots. The hollyhock-like flowers are white and yellow when they first open, but two days later they turn a dull red. Surrounding the flowers are three or four cup-shaped green leaves which together are called squares. These remain after the petals have dropped, to serve as a protection to the bolls.



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Are of great commercial importance

Are of great commercial importance



Although cotton is cultivated mainly for the fiber surrounding the seeds, its by-products, the seeds and stalks, are of great commercial importance, being manufactured into oil-meal, oil cakes, cottolene, etc. There are about fifty species of the cotton plant but only a few are cultivated, the best known and most commonly used being the "American Upland," which is now cultivated in many parts of the world. The two varieties grown in the United States are the "Sea Island" and the "Upland." The former is much more valuable because its fiber is longer. It is cultivated on the islands and low-lying coasts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. The latter, while not so valuable, furnishes most of the crop and is grown over a wide area.



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Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton.

Cotton.


The Plant. Cotton is one of the most important vegetable fibers, distinguished from all other fibers by the peculiar twist it possesses which makes it especially adapted to spinning. It is cultivated between the twentieth and thirty-fifth parallels north of the equator. This is known as the cotton belt. Within this belt lie the cotton districts of the United States, Northern Mexico, Egypt, Northern Africa, Asia and India.



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The silk fiber is all in one piece

The silk fiber is all in one piece



After the outsides of the cocoons are removed they are placed in hot water which softens the gum that is in the silk so that it can be wound off on reels. The silk fiber is all in one piece, and about one thousand feet long. There is always a portion of the cocoon which is too tangled to be wound, and it is made into what is called spun silk. Spun silk is carded like wool. The removal of the natural gum, by boiling in strong soap suds, effects a considerable loss in weight, the cleansing process, however, causing it to take on very beautiful tints. This loss has led to the weighting of silk by mixing cheaper materials with it.

An artificial silk is made from the fiber of the ramie plant which grows in China and Malay. This is sometimes known as China silk. Mercerized cotton has also been treated so as to very successfully imitate silk.



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It has not as yet been found profitable

It has not as yet been found profitable



Several unsuccessful attempts have been made to introduce the cultivation of the silk industry into the United States. As the business requires a large amount of cheap labor for a short time during the year, it has not as yet been found profitable. Machines are of little use, except in reeling the silk.

The moth lays its eggs, about five hundred in number, in August or September, and they hatch the following May, just at the time the mulberry comes into leaf. These little caterpillars are hatched and fed in-doors, and they eat like hungry school-boys for a month or more, until they are about three inches long. At this period they sicken and cast their skins, after which they begin eating as eagerly as ever. In about a month, however, the worms stop eating altogether, crawl up on the twigs which are placed on large trays, and begin to spin their cocoons. There are two little openings in the head of the worm, from which comes two thread-like substances resembling glue, from which the silk is made. These stick close together and form a flat thread. The silk-worm by moving its head about, wraps this thread around its body, wrapping from the outside inward, until it has completely inclosed itself in this silken blanket. Then it goes to sleep. If left to itself it would in two or three weeks bore its way out of this silky covering and come forth a feeble white moth. But as the cutting of this hole in the cocoon injures the fibers, only just enough for the next year's crop are allowed to come out. The rest are stifled in a hot oven.



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Silk

Silk.


Silk is the most beautiful of all fabrics. It is made from the fiber produced by the silk-worm which is a species of caterpillar. So perfectly does this little worm do its work that no spinning is required. This fiber, placed under a microscope, looks like a glass thread. It is the light playing along this smooth surface that gives to silk its beautiful luster.

Silk first came to Europe from China where the industry had been cultivated for many centuries. It is said this was begun by a woman, the wife of an Emperor, in the year 2600 B. C., and the culture of the mulberry, upon the leaves of which the silk-worm feeds and thrives, forty years later.



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Textile fibers and fabrics.

Textile fibers and fabrics.


Textile fibers and fabrics.

The fibers used in the manufacture of cloth are of two different natures, vegetable and animal.

The vegetable fibers may be divided into three distinct classes:

1. The cotton, having soft, lint-like fibers, one-half to two inches in length, is obtained from the seed-pods, called "bolls."

2. The fibers from flax, hemp and jute are flexible and of soft texture, ten to one hundred inches in length.

3. The hard or leaf fibers, including manila, sisal, istle and the New Zealand fibers, all having rather stiff woody fibers, one to ten feet long, are obtained from the leaf or the leaf stem.

The animal fibers are obtained from the wool bearing animals such as common sheep, Angora and Cashmere goats and the hair of the camel.

The silk fiber is obtained from the cocoon of a caterpillar.



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Crease the first tuck where desired

Crease the first tuck where desired



Tucking. Crease the first tuck where desired. For the second tuck measure from the first and allow twice the width of the tuck plus the desired space between. Repeat for the successive tucks.

Putting a Ruffle into a Hem-Tuck.

This makes an excellent finish for the bottom of underskirts, petticoats and drawers. Measure up from the bottom twice the width of the desired hem plus one-fourth of an inch for the seam and crease for a tuck. Stitch the tuck. This will leave the raw edge extending one-fourth of an inch below the edge of the tuck. Place the ruffle along this edge, wrong sides together, and baste in a quarter-inch seam. Baste the tuck over the seam and stitch along the edge.



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B If the pattern permits cut

B If the pattern permits cut



b. If the pattern permits, cut the lace with the pattern, lay one edge over the other and buttonhole over each raw edge with fine thread.

c. Sew the lace right sides together, in a narrow seam. Lay the seam flat and buttonhole over the raw edge and at the same time down to the lace.

d. Turn a narrow fold on one piece to the right side and on the other piece to the wrong side, slip one under the other and hem down the two edges as in the hemmed seam.



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The manner of sewing two ends of lace

The manner of sewing two ends of lace



B. Sewing Two Ends of Lace Together:

The manner of sewing two ends of lace together will depend upon the kind of lace to be joined, the pattern, strength, etc. The first aim to be considered is to have the joining strong enough so that it will not pull apart. The second is to join it so that it will show as little as possible. Several methods are suggested:

a. Lace made up of units can be easily joined by overhanding these units together.



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When sewing gathered lace to an edge

When sewing gathered lace to an edge



When sewing gathered lace to an edge, to round a corner proceed as above with this exception: The same fullness must be allowed on the corner that is allowed on the straight edge, in addition to that required to carry the lace around the corner without drawing. For example: If one-half the length of the lace is allowed for fullness on the straight edge, at the corner allow two and one-half times the width of the lace instead of twice its width.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

When sewing the lace on plain to round a corner

When sewing the lace on plain to round a corner



A. Sewing Lace Around a Corner:

When sewing the lace on plain to round a corner, overhand to a point as far from the corner as the width of the lace. (This point may be designated A, and a point an equal distance from the corner on the other side B.) From A measure on the lace twice its width and pin at the corner. Allow the same fullness on the other side and pin at B. Continue overhanding from B, leaving the corner until later, when the gathering thread will be put in, gathers arranged and the lace overhanded to the edge. If the lace is wide baste it in place at the corners before overhanding.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

When sewing lace to an edge always hold the lace next to you

When sewing lace to an edge always hold the lace next to you



Sewing on Lace. When sewing lace to an edge always hold the lace next to you. Lace may be put on straight or gathered. At the top of most laces will be found a coarse thread woven into the lace for the purpose of gathering. Before drawing this up divide the lace and the edge upon which it is to be placed into halves, quarters or eighths, depending upon the length, and pin, with right sides together, at points of division. Then draw up the thread, arrange the gathers even, and overhand to the edge with fine even stitches. If the gathering thread is not in the lace, put it in and proceed as above. If the lace is to be put on plain hold it loosely to the edge and overhand.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Monday, December 23, 2013

A Folding Envelope Case For Papers.

A Folding Envelope Case For Papers.


Materials: Strong felt paper, or its substitute; (a sheet 20" × 30" cut through the center the short way will make two cases. If two harmonious colors be selected, the corners cut from one case can be used to decorate another); book cloth in one-inch strips for binding; glue. Use tooth-picks in applying the glue.


BACK AND FRONT VIEWS OF A FOLDING ENVELOPE CASE FOR PAPERS.


Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Connect these points with straight lines

Connect these points with straight lines



Draw a line on the felt paper through the middle the long way and fold on the line. Measure on the outside one and one-fourth inches from the corners along both edges, and place points. Connect these points with straight lines. Place the long edge of the cloth corner to this line, and fold it over the corner and crease. Remove and trim it even before gluing on. Put the glue always on the cloth and use as little as possible. Crease the strip of book-cloth for the back, through the center, but do not glue in place until after the leaves are sewed in. Fold the sheets of paper through the center of the book. Follow the same directions for sewing the leaves together as given in the description of "A Child's Picture Book," . Finish by gluing the paper lining on the inside of the cover and the strip of book-cloth down the back.

This book could be made any size or shape, and decorated as desired.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

A Blank Book With Paper Cover Re-inforced With Cloth.

A Blank Book With Paper Cover Re-inforced With Cloth.



A BLANK BOOK.

Materials: Strong felt paper 9" × 10"; book cloth for back 10" × 3¼", for corners 4 pieces 2" × 1¾"; lining paper for covers, 2 sheets 4¼" × 9½"; number of sheets of paper desired for the book 8½" × 9½"; coarse thread; coarse needle; glue. Use tooth-picks in applying the glue.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Find the center of the card by drawing both diagonals

Find the center of the card by drawing both diagonals



Find the center of the card by drawing both diagonals. Measure two and one-half inches from the center toward the sides. Draw straight lines passing through these points connecting opposite edges, thus forming a five-inch square in the center. Cut out the corners on these lines. Hold the edge of a ruler firmly to the lines of the square and bend the cardboard. Fold the strip of cloth or tape through the center and put the glue on this, using very little, and taking care to keep it back from the edge. Cover the corners with the cloth. Cut a strip of the colored paper twenty-one inches by two and three-fourth inches. Put a very little glue on the outside of the box and cover with the colored paper. Turn over the edges and glue them down. Follow the same directions for making the cover, measuring two and five-eighth inches from the center of the seven-inch square of cardboard. Cover the sides and top with the colored paper, the strip for the sides being twenty-two inches by one and one-half inches, and the top a five-inch square. This box can be made in any size or shape, the same general plan being followed.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

A Box With Cover.

A Box With Cover.


Materials: Cardboard for foundation 9" × 9"; cover 7" × 7"; colored paper for covering; strips of cloth or glue-tape for staying corners; glue. Use tooth-picks in applying the glue.


NO. 1 AND NO. 2 ONE-PIECE BOXES.
NO. 3. TWO-PIECE BOX. BOX AND COVER ALIKE.

GROUP OF BOXES.


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Mark three holes on the fold with the needle

Mark three holes on the fold with the needle



1. Mark three holes on the fold with the needle, one in the middle and one two inches above it, and another two inches below it.

2. Tie a large knot two inches from the end of the thread.

3. Insert the needle at the lowest hole, from the inside, and draw it through leaving two inches of the thread to tie.

4. Pass over the middle hole and down through the upper one, out through the middle hole on one side of the long thread, and back through the same hole on the other side of the thread, and tie the two ends of the thread together.

Paste a pretty card or large picture on the outside for the cover. Page the book with neat figures and write the name of the child for whom the book is designed on the inside of the cover. Arrange and paste in the pictures neatly.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Paper, cloth and cardboard construction. A Child's Picture Book.

Paper, cloth and cardboard construction. A Child's Picture Book.


A Child's Picture Book.


Materials: Pink, blue or yellow paper cambric 27 inches; coarse thread; coarse needle; bright, pretty pictures which the children have cut from papers, magazines, cards, etc.; paste.

Fold the cloth through the center with the warp and cut on the fold. Fold both strips into three equal pieces with the woof, and cut. Fold each piece through the center parallel to the selvedge. Place two pieces together and pin at the fold, and "pink" through the four thicknesses, around the edges with a "pinking iron." Do the same with the other pieces. When finished place them all together and stitch at the fold at follows:



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Give careful heed to the selection of color

Give careful heed to the selection of color



Give careful heed to the selection of color, not only to the dress but to the accessories, hat, gloves, collar, belt and shoes, as well. In fact, consider the costume as a whole made up of parts, each one of which must harmonize with every other.

Before sewing machines were to be found in every home and ready made clothing in the stores styles did not change so rapidly. Commercial conditions now make it to the advantage of a great army of people that the styles in dress change often and radically. The manufacturers of cloth, the wholesale merchants with their agents, the retailers and their numerous clerks, wholesale garment-makers and their many employes, pattern-makers, dress-makers, milliners and the manufacturers of all minor articles of clothing are all benefitted by this oft recurring change in style. This condition has come about so gradually that we hardly realize to what extent we are victims of trade-tricks. It is not necessary nor desirable that woman should enslave herself to follow all the vagaries of style.


CHILD'S PICTURE BOOK.


Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

A short stout person should avoid plaids

A short stout person should avoid plaids



Some colors and styles are becoming to certain complexions and forms and are quite the reverse to others. A short stout person should avoid plaids, while one overly tall should never select stripes. The lines of the garment are equally important any method of trimming that gives length, the long lines of the "princess" and the "empire" styles are a boon to the short figure, while the overskirt, the deep flounce, and the bands of trimming running around the skirt, all help to break the long lines for the tall woman. Belts that by contrast divide the figure are not good unless one wishes to shorten the height. Waists and skirts of the same color usually have more style and give better form.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy

Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy



"Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy," wrote Shakespeare, and the advice still holds good. Economy does not consist, however, of buying cheap, shoddy material. Trimming can be dispensed with to the improvement of the average garment, but a dress made of good cloth will out-wear, look better, give greater self-respect, and in the end cost less than several dresses made of cheap stuff, as the cost of making is no more for the one than the other. This is a principle that applies as well to underwear. Simple garments, well made of firm fine cambric are much to be preferred to those overtrimmed with cheap lace and sleazy embroidery.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Neatness should be considered above beauty or style

Neatness should be considered above beauty or style



Neatness should be considered above beauty or style. A soiled collar, hooks, eyes and buttons missing, gloves out at finger ends, shoes dusty and unpolished, braid hanging from the skirt, the waist and skirt separated are all accidents which may befall anyone, but are most deplorable when they become chronic.

It has been wisely said that the best dressed woman is she of whose clothing one is unconscious, whose dress is neither conspicuous from extreme style nor too noticeable from a total disregard of the custom of the times. Good taste demands that one be not overdressed. Street and business suits and young girls' school dresses should be plain, well made and neat, of subdued and becoming color.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

While a due regard to the opinions of

While a due regard to the opinions of



While a due regard to the opinions of others demands a certain conformity to the customs of the time and place in which one lives, there is always a latitude allowed which enables one to exercise individual needs, taste and preference.

Health and comfort should take rank before everything else. A style which interferes with either is an absurdity which anyone of good sense will avoid.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Clothing was first designed in the early ages

Clothing was first designed in the early ages



Clothing was first designed in the early ages, no doubt, as a covering and protection to the body; it has come, however, to mean something more than this. It is an expression of the character, the nicety of taste or lack of it the discrimination and judgment of the individual. In the selection of one's garments there are a number of points which must be taken into consideration, such as health and comfort, cost, fitness, color and style, as well as beauty. And above all, the average woman must pause and consider last season's garments, that are too good to be discarded and must form a part of this year's wardrobe. It is quite disastrous to plunge ahead and buy a blue dress, because blue happens to be stylish, if the hat to be worn with it is a green or brown "left over."



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Art on paper is the preparation for a journey packing the suitcase

Art on paper is the preparation for a journey packing the suitcase



Art on paper is the preparation for a journey packing the suitcase, as it were, necessary but toilsome; the application of art principles to the problems of real life, the delightful excursion, opening the eyes to real beauty and its possibilities. May the children in our schools have something more than the drudgery of preparation.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

An artist who paints the human figure

An artist who paints the human figure



An artist who paints the human figure, draws and erases and draws again, and yet again, that the contour of the form he creates may be right in proportion and graceful in line. He studies his coloring, he compares, rejects and blends for a particular shade or tint that makes for complete harmony. No discordant note of color nor turn of line that detracts from the beauty of the whole is allowed. And there are artistic makers-of-garments who put into the costumes they create the same thought and care that the artist spends upon his canvas, but the prices of both are within the reach of very few. Nearly every woman must plan her own wardrobe and choose the furnishings for her home and this is what "Art" and "Domestic Art" in the public schools should train the girl of to-day the woman of the future to do.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Dress, and its relation to art.

Dress, and its relation to art.


Art education should bring to every girl a greater appreciation of beauty and a sufficient knowledge to enable her to beautify her home and to dress herself becomingly. This is the real "applied art" or "applied design" of which we have heard much but seen little.

The power and skill necessary to originate an intricate and artistic design, and a technical knowledge of color-blending are worth something to the individual, but the ability to apply this knowledge later to the decoration of her home and to the selection of her own wardrobe is of vastly greater importance.



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The general treatment of the cloth is practically the same

The general treatment of the cloth is practically the same



While the finish may differ, the general treatment of the cloth is practically the same. The first step is called pulling, when the cloth is soaked in hot water and pulled by a pulling machine. It is soaked, pulled and beaten until it is only half its original length and breadth. It is then rinsed and stretched on a frame where it will dry without a wrinkle. At this time the nap is raised by beating the cloth with the spike head of the teasel plant or its substitute. The pile or nap is then trimmed so as to present a uniform surface, when it is wound tightly around a huge drum and immersed in hot water. Finally it is pressed in a hydraulic press, during which time steam is forced through it. This is to give solidity and smoothness to the cloth and also to add luster to the finished fabric.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Among the principal varieties are

Among the principal varieties are



A variety of effects can also be produced by the character of the finish. Among the principal varieties are:

1. The dress face finish, such as broadcloth and beaver.
2. The velvet finish.
3. The Scotch or Melton finish.
4. The bare face finish, which has the nap completely sheared off.


Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

There are two classes of woolen textiles

There are two classes of woolen textiles



Woolens. There are two classes of woolen textiles, woolens and worsteds, depending upon the character of the fiber used, and the treatment to which it is subjected. The shorter varieties of wool are used in woolens, while the long fibers are combed out and used for the worsteds. In making woolen yarns the wool is simply carded and very loosely spun, but in making worsted thread the wool is combed out and hard twisted. Owing to the nap of the woolen goods the weaving is scarcely visible, but in the manufacture of worsteds the weave is evident and a great variety of designs is possible.



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The wool is harsh to the touch after it has been scoured

The wool is harsh to the touch after it has been scoured



The wool is harsh to the touch after it has been scoured, owing to the removal of the yolk. To restore its natural softness it is slightly sprinkled with oil during the process of mixing.

Carding and Spinning. The process of carding produces a thread having fibers projecting loosely from the main thread in little ends which form the nap of the finished cloth. After it is carded it is wound on spools and is ready for the spinning. In spinning the threads are held together by their scales and the waviness of the fiber which prevents them from untwisting. Another valuable feature of wool is its elasticity, which makes it soft to the touch and this is retained in the manufactured goods.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Alpaca and Mohair are classed as wools

Alpaca and Mohair are classed as wools



Alpaca and Mohair are classed as wools, but the former is produced by the Alpaca goat and the latter by the Angora goat. Cashmere wool comes from the Cashmere goat, found in Thibet, and is very costly, as only the finest parts of the fleece are used. In the far eastern countries beautiful, costly fabrics are made from the long hair of the camel.

Preparation. When wool comes to the factory in the raw state it must be scoured. This is done by passing it through machines containing strong soap suds, and afterwards rinsing it. After the wool is dry it is mixed or blended. Mixing is an operation of great importance and is done to make the wool of uniform quality. Portions of wool from different lots, qualities and colors are placed in alternate layers and blended. If it is desired to mix other materials with the wool, such as silk, cotton or shoddy, it is added at this time.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

There are three classes of wool

There are three classes of wool



Classification. There are three classes of wool, classified according to the length, fineness and felting qualities:

1. The carding or clothing wool.
2. The combing or worsted wool.
3. The blanket or carpet wool.

Wool on different parts of the same animal varies greatly, that on the shoulders being the finest and most even. All unwashed wool contains a fatty or greasy matter called yolk or suint. This keeps the fiber from matting together and also protects the fleece from injury. The yolk must be removed before the wool is manufactured into cloth. When the fleece is cut from the body of the sheep it sticks together so that it can be spread out like the hide of an animal, and each fleece is tied in a separate bundle. A few years ago sheep shearing was done by hand. This was a busy time, especially on large ranches where thousands of sheep were to be sheared and it required a large crew to do the work. It is now accomplished with much less time, labor and expense by machinery.



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Wool is the fleecy covering of sheep.

Wool.


Wool is the fleecy covering of sheep. It is distinguished by its waviness and the scaly covering of the fibers. The scales are more pointed and protrude more than those of hair. This gives it a tendency to mat or felt. The waviness of wool is due to the spiral structure of the fibers. Next to cotton, wool is the most extensively used of all the textile fibers.

The Romans developed a breed of sheep having wool of exceeding fineness, and later introduced their sheep into Spain. Here they were still further improved, and it was not many years until Spain led the world in the production of wool. The fine wooled Merino sheep originated here. Australia and the United States are also great wool-producing countries.



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Linen is chiefly manufactured in France

Linen is chiefly manufactured in France



Linen is chiefly manufactured in France, Belgium, Germany, England and the United States. France is noted for the finest kinds of lawn and cambric, while Ireland excels in the production of table linen. The largest portion of the sheeting and toweling is made in Scotland. The linen manufactures of the United States consist principally of toweling and twine.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

It is now one of the national industries

It is now one of the national industries



For many centuries the weaving of linen was conducted as a household industry. The first attempt to manufacture it on a large scale was in England in 1253. It is now one of the national industries. Linen is bleached after it is woven. In the olden times it was spread upon the grass, or lawn, and the action of the sun, air and moisture whitened it, and for this reason it was called "lawn," and it is still so designated. In the modern process of bleaching, the linen is first singed by being passed rapidly over hot cylinders which makes the cloth smooth. It is then boiled in lime water, washed and afterwards scoured in a solution of sulphuric acid, exposed to the air for a time and again scoured. Lastly, it is boiled in soda-lye water and dried over hot tin rollers. The gloss on linen is made by first mangling, then starching, and finally running it between heavy rollers.



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Being drawn and twisted and drawn out again

Being drawn and twisted and drawn out again



The treatment of the flax fiber for spinning is similar to that of the cotton (), being drawn and twisted and drawn out again, repeating this process several times.

Spinning. Coarse and heavy yarns are spun dry, but fine yarn must be spun wet. Some varieties of velvet and velveteen are made from linen. Much of the so-called linen cloth of the present day is mixed with cotton or jute. The principles of weaving are the same as that of the cotton. See .



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Linseed oil is expressed from the seed

Linseed oil is expressed from the seed



The fiber of the bark is the part of the plant used in the manufacture of cloth. Linseed oil is expressed from the seed.

The Preparation of the Fiber. When the plant is ripe it is pulled up by the roots and beaten to loosen the seeds which are then shaken out. Next the stems are steeped in soft water and afterward allowed to ferment. They are then dried and passed between fluted rollers which breaks the woody part of the stems which are again beaten to remove this woody part from the fiber. The fiber is then made into bundles and sent to the mill to be spun, where it is first roughly sorted, the longest and best portions being separated from the short raveled ones. These inferior portions are called "tow."



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Flax grows from two to three feet high

Flax grows from two to three feet high



The Plant. Flax grows from two to three feet high, and has a blue flower. A field of flax in blossom is very beautiful.

While it is grown extensively in many parts of Europe, Asia and America, the soil and climate of Ireland, France and the Netherlands are especially adapted to its growth, and it is in these countries that it reaches its greatest perfection.



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Flax.

Flax.


The fibers of flax are spun and woven into a fabric called linen. This is one of the most ancient industries known to man. Linen is often mentioned in the Bible and the ancient Egyptians wrapped their mummies in this fabric. It is said that the finest linen of the present day looks coarse beside that from the Egyptian looms in the days of the Pharaohs. The Hebrew and Egyptian priests wore garments made of this fine linen.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Two systems of spinning are in use at the present time

Two systems of spinning are in use at the present time



Spinning. Two systems of spinning are in use at the present time, ring spinning and self-acting mule spinning. The former is done mostly by women and children, and produces a hard, round irregular yarn. The latter machines, operated only by men and very strong women, are complicated, but produce an exceedingly soft and fine yarn.

The thread used for sewing and for the manufacture of lace is made by twisting several fine threads together. Sewing thread is usually composed of from six to nine threads spun separately and then twisted into one. Thread is sometimes passed very rapidly through a flame which burns off the fuzz making it very smooth.

Weaving. Three operations are necessary in the manufacture of cloth; First, the separation of the warp threads on the loom, so that the shuttle containing the woof can pass through. Second, the movement of the shuttle, back and forth, among the warp threads. Third, the beating up the woof.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

And is then ready for shipping

And is then ready for shipping



After the seeds are removed the cotton is put up into bales weighing about five hundred pounds each, and is then ready for shipping. When these bales are received at the factory the cotton is so closely matted together that it must be broken up or loosened. This is done in the blending room where it is first run through heavily weighted and spiked rollers which pull the cotton apart. It is then blended or mixed to make it of uniform quality. After this it is taken to the carding room. Here the fibers are drawn parallel to one another and bits of leaves and unripe fibers removed, when it is put through the drawing frame, consisting of a pair of rollers. These parallel, untwisted fibers are now called "slivers." From the drawing frame these "slivers" go to the slubbing machines where it is lightly twisted and wound on bobbins. This process is repeated on similar machines each one drawing the thread out and twisting it a little more, until it is finally ready for spinning.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Until the cotton gin was invented in 1793

Until the cotton gin was invented in 1793



The Preparation of the Fiber. After the cotton is picked it is taken to the gin which separates the fiber from the seed. Until the cotton gin was invented in 1793, by a Connecticut teacher, then living in Georgia, the cultivation of cotton was not profitable, as one person could only clear the seeds from five or six pounds a day. This machine has revolving teeth which drag the cotton between parallel wires, leaving the seeds behind. With this machine a slave could clean about a thousand pounds in a day. This gave a wonderful impetus to the cotton industry, and its cultivation increased enormously.



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The most of the cotton crop is planted by the twentieth of May

The most of the cotton crop is planted by the twentieth of May



Cotton thrives best in a rich, deep soil with a hot, steamy atmosphere. It should have plenty of moisture while growing and a dryer period during the ripening and gathering of the crop. The most of the cotton crop is planted by the twentieth of May. Six weeks after it begins blossoming the first bolls are ready for picking. This is done by hand, and as the bolls do not all ripen at the same time, it is necessary to go over the field many times, and the picking often lasts until the middle of December. The cotton is gathered into baskets hung from the shoulders of the pickers.



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The plant grows from seven to ten feet high

The plant grows from seven to ten feet high



The plant grows from seven to ten feet high. The leaves are sprinkled with small black dots. The hollyhock-like flowers are white and yellow when they first open, but two days later they turn a dull red. Surrounding the flowers are three or four cup-shaped green leaves which together are called squares. These remain after the petals have dropped, to serve as a protection to the bolls.



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Are of great commercial importance

Are of great commercial importance



Although cotton is cultivated mainly for the fiber surrounding the seeds, its by-products, the seeds and stalks, are of great commercial importance, being manufactured into oil-meal, oil cakes, cottolene, etc. There are about fifty species of the cotton plant but only a few are cultivated, the best known and most commonly used being the "American Upland," which is now cultivated in many parts of the world. The two varieties grown in the United States are the "Sea Island" and the "Upland." The former is much more valuable because its fiber is longer. It is cultivated on the islands and low-lying coasts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. The latter, while not so valuable, furnishes most of the crop and is grown over a wide area.



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Cotton is one of the most important vegetable fibers.

Cotton is one of the most important vegetable fibers.

Cotton.


The Plant. Cotton is one of the most important vegetable fibers, distinguished from all other fibers by the peculiar twist it possesses which makes it especially adapted to spinning. It is cultivated between the twentieth and thirty-fifth parallels north of the equator. This is known as the cotton belt. Within this belt lie the cotton districts of the United States, Northern Mexico, Egypt, Northern Africa, Asia and India.



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The silk fiber is all in one piece

The silk fiber is all in one piece



After the outsides of the cocoons are removed they are placed in hot water which softens the gum that is in the silk so that it can be wound off on reels. The silk fiber is all in one piece, and about one thousand feet long. There is always a portion of the cocoon which is too tangled to be wound, and it is made into what is called spun silk. Spun silk is carded like wool. The removal of the natural gum, by boiling in strong soap suds, effects a considerable loss in weight, the cleansing process, however, causing it to take on very beautiful tints. This loss has led to the weighting of silk by mixing cheaper materials with it.

An artificial silk is made from the fiber of the ramie plant which grows in China and Malay. This is sometimes known as China silk. Mercerized cotton has also been treated so as to very successfully imitate silk.



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It has not as yet been found profitable

It has not as yet been found profitable



Several unsuccessful attempts have been made to introduce the cultivation of the silk industry into the United States. As the business requires a large amount of cheap labor for a short time during the year, it has not as yet been found profitable. Machines are of little use, except in reeling the silk.

The moth lays its eggs, about five hundred in number, in August or September, and they hatch the following May, just at the time the mulberry comes into leaf. These little caterpillars are hatched and fed in-doors, and they eat like hungry school-boys for a month or more, until they are about three inches long. At this period they sicken and cast their skins, after which they begin eating as eagerly as ever. In about a month, however, the worms stop eating altogether, crawl up on the twigs which are placed on large trays, and begin to spin their cocoons. There are two little openings in the head of the worm, from which comes two thread-like substances resembling glue, from which the silk is made. These stick close together and form a flat thread. The silk-worm by moving its head about, wraps this thread around its body, wrapping from the outside inward, until it has completely inclosed itself in this silken blanket. Then it goes to sleep. If left to itself it would in two or three weeks bore its way out of this silky covering and come forth a feeble white moth. But as the cutting of this hole in the cocoon injures the fibers, only just enough for the next year's crop are allowed to come out. The rest are stifled in a hot oven.



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Silk is the most beautiful of all fabrics.

Silk is the most beautiful of all fabrics.

Silk.


Silk is the most beautiful of all fabrics. It is made from the fiber produced by the silk-worm which is a species of caterpillar. So perfectly does this little worm do its work that no spinning is required. This fiber, placed under a microscope, looks like a glass thread. It is the light playing along this smooth surface that gives to silk its beautiful luster.

Silk first came to Europe from China where the industry had been cultivated for many centuries. It is said this was begun by a woman, the wife of an Emperor, in the year 2600 B. C., and the culture of the mulberry, upon the leaves of which the silk-worm feeds and thrives, forty years later.



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Textile fibers and fabrics.

Textile fibers and fabrics.


Textile fibers and fabrics.

The fibers used in the manufacture of cloth are of two different natures, vegetable and animal.

The vegetable fibers may be divided into three distinct classes:

1. The cotton, having soft, lint-like fibers, one-half to two inches in length, is obtained from the seed-pods, called "bolls."

2. The fibers from flax, hemp and jute are flexible and of soft texture, ten to one hundred inches in length.

3. The hard or leaf fibers, including manila, sisal, istle and the New Zealand fibers, all having rather stiff woody fibers, one to ten feet long, are obtained from the leaf or the leaf stem.

The animal fibers are obtained from the wool bearing animals such as common sheep, Angora and Cashmere goats and the hair of the camel.

The silk fiber is obtained from the cocoon of a caterpillar.



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Crease the first tuck where desired

Crease the first tuck where desired



Tucking. Crease the first tuck where desired. For the second tuck measure from the first and allow twice the width of the tuck plus the desired space between. Repeat for the successive tucks.

Putting a Ruffle into a Hem-Tuck.

This makes an excellent finish for the bottom of underskirts, petticoats and drawers. Measure up from the bottom twice the width of the desired hem plus one-fourth of an inch for the seam and crease for a tuck. Stitch the tuck. This will leave the raw edge extending one-fourth of an inch below the edge of the tuck. Place the ruffle along this edge, wrong sides together, and baste in a quarter-inch seam. Baste the tuck over the seam and stitch along the edge.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

B If the pattern permits cut

B If the pattern permits cut



b. If the pattern permits, cut the lace with the pattern, lay one edge over the other and buttonhole over each raw edge with fine thread.

c. Sew the lace right sides together, in a narrow seam. Lay the seam flat and buttonhole over the raw edge and at the same time down to the lace.

d. Turn a narrow fold on one piece to the right side and on the other piece to the wrong side, slip one under the other and hem down the two edges as in the hemmed seam.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

The manner of sewing two ends of lace

The manner of sewing two ends of lace



B. Sewing Two Ends of Lace Together:

The manner of sewing two ends of lace together will depend upon the kind of lace to be joined, the pattern, strength, etc. The first aim to be considered is to have the joining strong enough so that it will not pull apart. The second is to join it so that it will show as little as possible. Several methods are suggested:

a. Lace made up of units can be easily joined by overhanding these units together.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

When sewing gathered lace to an edge

When sewing gathered lace to an edge



When sewing gathered lace to an edge, to round a corner proceed as above with this exception: The same fullness must be allowed on the corner that is allowed on the straight edge, in addition to that required to carry the lace around the corner without drawing. For example: If one-half the length of the lace is allowed for fullness on the straight edge, at the corner allow two and one-half times the width of the lace instead of twice its width.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

When sewing the lace on plain to round a corner

When sewing the lace on plain to round a corner



A. Sewing Lace Around a Corner:

When sewing the lace on plain to round a corner, overhand to a point as far from the corner as the width of the lace. (This point may be designated A, and a point an equal distance from the corner on the other side B.) From A measure on the lace twice its width and pin at the corner. Allow the same fullness on the other side and pin at B. Continue overhanding from B, leaving the corner until later, when the gathering thread will be put in, gathers arranged and the lace overhanded to the edge. If the lace is wide baste it in place at the corners before overhanding.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

When sewing lace to an edge always hold the lace next to you

When sewing lace to an edge always hold the lace next to you



Sewing on Lace. When sewing lace to an edge always hold the lace next to you. Lace may be put on straight or gathered. At the top of most laces will be found a coarse thread woven into the lace for the purpose of gathering. Before drawing this up divide the lace and the edge upon which it is to be placed into halves, quarters or eighths, depending upon the length, and pin, with right sides together, at points of division. Then draw up the thread, arrange the gathers even, and overhand to the edge with fine even stitches. If the gathering thread is not in the lace, put it in and proceed as above. If the lace is to be put on plain hold it loosely to the edge and overhand.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

With the pin across the button

With the pin across the button



c. Two-Hole Button Place the button so that the stitches will come at right angles to the edge of the cloth, with the pin across the button. Proceed as with the four-hole button.

Sewing on Hooks and Eyes. In sewing hooks and eyes on a garment it is best, where practicable, to cover the ends with the lining of the garment or with a piece of tape. In sewing them on the edge of a hem or facing turn the edge of the hem back over the ends of the hooks and eyes and hem it down. Where they are to be covered they should be strongly overhanded to the garment first. When covering is not feasible place the hook or eye in position and buttonhole around the top, beginning at the right-hand side and inserting the needle under and up through the hole, throwing the thread around the needle as in the buttonhole stitch. The hook should be sewed down at the point before breaking the thread. The worked loop is often used in place of the metal eye. For this purpose cut a stiff pointed piece of cardboard the length of the desired loop and work the loop over this, when the cardboard can be easily slipped out. The loop is worked from left to right with the blanket stitch the same as the bar of the buttonhole.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Change the position of the pin and repeat

Change the position of the pin and repeat



b. Four-Hole Button In sewing on flat buttons insert the needle from the right side and back in order to hide the knot under the button. Place the button in position and hold a pin across the button for the purpose of lengthening the stitches. Put in five or six stitches diagonally across the button and over the pin. Change the position of the pin and repeat. Slip the pin out, pass the needle through the cloth only, and wind the thread around the threads between the button and the cloth. Pass the needle through the cloth and fasten securely.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

In sewing flat buttons on coats

In sewing flat buttons on coats



Sewing on Buttons. There are two important requirements for sewing on buttons to put in sufficient thread, and to fasten this thread securely that it may not loosen from the end. In sewing flat buttons on coats, jackets, etc., place a small button on the under side and sew through it to avoid having the stitches show on the under side.

a. The Loop or Shank Button Place the button in position with the loop at right angles to the edge of the cloth. Hold the button with the left hand and overhand the loop to the cloth. Pass the thread to the under side and fasten.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Double the binding ribbon through the center and crease

Double the binding ribbon through the center and crease



b. The Open Bound Seam Prepare the seam as above without the bias binding. Trim and press the seam open. Double the binding ribbon through the center and crease. Place the raw edge of the seam to the fold of the ribbon and run along the edge, catching through to the under fold. Tape may be used for binding, but must be basted on first and hemmed down.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Friday, December 20, 2013

Seams may be bound with the two parts of the seam together

Seams may be bound with the two parts of the seam together



E. Bound Seam:

Seams may be bound with the two parts of the seam together, or they may be pressed open and bound separately. This may be done with a bias strip, binding ribbon or tape.

a. Binding the entire seam Place together the two right sides of the pieces to be joined and baste one-eighth of an inch from the edge. Place the bias binding (three-fourths of an inch wide) with the wrong side of the cloth up and the edge of the binding one-eighth of an inch from the edge of the seam, and baste in place. Stitch through the three thicknesses of cloth a quarter of an inch from the edge. Turn in one-eighth of an inch on the other side of the binding and hem it down just above the stitching on the other side of the seam. This method of binding is used on the arm-holes of garments or wherever it is not feasible to open the seam and bind separately.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Instead of with a seam involving several thicknesses of cloth

Instead of with a seam involving several thicknesses of cloth



D. Flannel Seam:

The flannel seam is used on material so thick that it is necessary to finish over a raw edge, instead of with a seam involving several thicknesses of cloth. Place together the right sides of the two pieces to be joined and baste one-eighth of an inch from the edge. Stitch one-fourth of an inch from the edge and remove the bastings. Trim the seams smooth, open and baste flat to the cloth. Herringbone stitch over the raw edge of both sides of the seam. One side of the herringbone stitch should come just over the raw edge of the flannel. The edges must be kept smooth, and unless the flannel ravels easily, the herringbone stitch should be not over one-eighth of an inch deep and close together. This stitch is used also on the flannel patch.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

This is used for joining thin material

This is used for joining thin material



C. Hemmed Seam:

This is used for joining thin material, lace, etc. On one piece fold an eighth of an inch seam (or more, if necessary) to the right side of the cloth, and on the other piece fold an eighth of an inch seam to the wrong side. Place the right sides of the two pieces together with the raw edge of one piece under and to the folded edge of the other. Baste this fold down over the raw edge sewing through the three thicknesses of cloth. Fold over in the crease and baste through the four thicknesses. Stitch, or hem by hand, along the edge of the seam on both sides of the cloth.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Place together the wrong sides of the pieces to be joined

Place together the wrong sides of the pieces to be joined



B. French Seam.

Place together the wrong sides of the pieces to be joined, and baste one-fourth of an inch from the edge. With the running stitch sew one-eighth of an inch from the edge. Carefully trim off the ravelings, fold the right sides together and crease exactly in the seam, baste and stitch the seam, taking care that no ravelings can be seen and that the seam is perfectly smooth on the right side.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Place the two pieces to be joined

Place the two pieces to be joined



A. French Fell.

Place the two pieces to be joined, right sides together, edges even and baste one-fourth of an inch from the edge. Sew with the combination stitch (or machine stitching) three-eighths of an inch from the edge. Trim three-sixteenths of an inch from the under side of the seam and crease the upper side of the seam over this. (In hand sewing there is a long stitch on the under side. Be sure to trim from this side so that the short stitch comes on the top.) On the right side of the garment crease carefully and baste along the edge of the seam to prevent the fullness which beginners are so liable to have over the French Fell on the right side. Turn to the wrong side, baste the seam flat to the cloth, and hem.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

A seam is formed by sewing together two pieces of cloth

A seam is formed by sewing together two pieces of cloth



Seams. A seam is formed by sewing together two pieces of cloth. There are several different methods of joining them. Those known as the raw seams may be joined by stitching, half-back stitching, overhanding or the combination stitch. The closed or finished seams are known as the French Fell, French Seam, Hemmed Seam, Flannel Seam and the Bound Seam. No garment should be finished with a raw seam, which is only properly used when covered with a lining, or as the first step in one of the finished seams.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Fold over the remaining part to the wrong side

Fold over the remaining part to the wrong side



e. Fold over the remaining part to the wrong side, baste and hem. Stitch along the fold of the gusset to strengthen it.


FORMATION OF GUSSET.

Putting in Sleeves. After trimming the arm hole, measure one inch back from the shoulder seam and mark with a pin. Fold the garment at the arm hole with this pin at the top of the fold and place another directly opposite it. Call this point A. Remove the first pin to avoid confusion. For a sleeve for an adult, measure from the shoulder seam five inches on the front and mark with a pin. Call this point B. Measure from the shoulder seam three inches on the back and mark with a pin. Call this point C. With the sleeve right side out place the under seam of the sleeve at A and pin together at this point. The gathers are to come at the top of the sleeve between B and C. For misses and children the measurements should be decreased proportionately. Measure the sleeve on the arm-hole and cut small notches at B and C. Gather the sleeve between these notches one-fourth of an inch from the edge, with a strong thread a little longer than the distance to be gathered. Put in a second gathering one-eighth of an inch from the first. Put in place at points A B and C; draw up the gathering threads to the proper length and fasten by winding around a pin. Arrange the gathers between B and C, pushing them a little closer together in front of the shoulder seam. Hold the inside of the sleeve next to you and, beginning at B, baste first around the plain part, then the gathered part. Stitch inside the basting and bind the seam.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Cut a piece of cloth one and one-half inches square

Cut a piece of cloth one and one-half inches square



c. Cut a piece of cloth one and one-half inches square. On this square fold down one corner three-fourths of an inch on the sides and cut it off. Turn a fold one-eighth of an inch all around this piece. Place the corner which is opposite the diagonal cut to the middle of this cut and crease.

d. To sew the gusset in, place the apex of the triangle to the end of the opening and overhand on the wrong side to the crease before made.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

The following are the successive steps for making the gusset

The following are the successive steps for making the gusset



D. The Gusset.

This method of finishing an opening is sometimes used on drawers and night-shirts instead of Placket A. The following are the successive steps for making the gusset:

a. Cut the opening the desired length.

b. Hem both sides with a very narrow hem running to a point at the end of the opening.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft