Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Oval or split reed comes in sizes 5 and 7

Oval or split reed comes in sizes 5 and 7



Oval or split reed comes in sizes 5 and 7. This reed makes artistic hanging baskets.

The flat 38 inch wide is often used in making foundations for sweet grass baskets, and it also makes durable scrap baskets.

Raffia is the outside covering of the Madagascar palm. It is a light, tough material imported in the natural or straw color, but may be dyed in many beautiful colors. It is sold in bundles or braids of from one to four pounds. Care should be exercised in using this material. It is advisable to keep it in canvas bags or hang it in braids in the class room, as careless handling may cause untidiness or tend to disorder in the class room.



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The round reed varies in sizes from

The round reed varies in sizes from No



The round reed varies in sizes from No. 00 to No. 17; No. 00 being the finest, is used in making the centers of baskets, in finishing handles, and in making very small baskets and trays. Sizes 1 to 5 are used in making ordinary size baskets and trays, 5 and 6 for scrap baskets, 8 and 10 for handle foundations.

The reed comes only in the natural color, but may be dyed into many beautiful colors either before or after the article is made.



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The reed is manufactured from the rattan

The reed is manufactured from the rattan



The reed is manufactured from the rattan. It has been manufactured in America for about sixty years. There are a number of such manufacturing plants, among which the Wakefield Rattan Company and the New England Company have made splendid reed. Germany and Belgium give us the best reed, while the least desirable quality comes from China.

The outer surface of the rattan is glazed. It is cut in long narrow strips, and is familiar to everyone under the name “cane.” It is used in caning chairs. From the pith or inside rattan, we get the reed known as oval, flat and round, the latter being most extensively used.



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Equipment. The materials used in making these baskets.

Equipment. The materials used in making these baskets.


Materials

The materials used in making these baskets are rattan or reed, raffia, rush, straw, hemp.

Rattan is a palm which grows wild in India, Japan, China and East India Islands. The rattan seed is black and corresponds in size to a pea. It is a notable fact that, while growing, the rattan always faces the sun. The shoot of this seed grows four years; it is then cut close. The plant produces almost three hundred shoots which are cut annually. These slender shoots attain a length of from three to five hundred feet. They climb the highest trees and hang from them in graceful festoons. It is interesting to see how, like the selfish pumpkin vine, they crowd out any other plant that should happen to be in the way. By small fibres which spring from the joints, they fasten themselves to the trees, and they hold so tenaciously and have such grip or strength that it requires several men, sometimes as many as a half dozen, to separate and remove them.



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Sequence in basketry should be followed carefully with beginners

Sequence in basketry should be followed carefully with beginners



Sequence in basketry should be followed carefully with beginners, and although it will be impossible to give in detail all the steps included in the subject, the most essential and important will be given, with many suggestions in models for advanced workers.

In conclusion, just a word to the special class teacher of backward, defective, and the backward or defective delinquents. The course presented in this book may be used in the sequence given or adapted just as is necessary to the class of children taught. Most of the models here demonstrated have been successfully taught to children in the backward delinquent class and have been a means of promoting, mentally and morally, the welfare of the child; directing his miscontrolled energy into proper channels, besides making his school life a brighter and happier one.

That this book may be of help to the basket maker and that it may bring much success and happiness to the reader is the wish of the author who has spent many happy hours in preparing it.



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I would suggest that children be permitted to

I would suggest that children be permitted to



I would suggest that children be permitted to criticise their own and each other’s work.

The celebrating of the holiday seasons can be nicely carried out in the manual training period when the making of birthday gifts, Christmas trays, Easter baskets, sewing baskets, hanging baskets and scrap baskets can be appropriately introduced. Try this suggestion, and watch the happiness of the child who makes gifts for his loved ones.



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Owing to the simplicity of basketry the work

Owing to the simplicity of basketry the work



Owing to the simplicity of basketry the work is being generally accepted. The child of seven or eight years may make a simple mat and basket and find it play work, while the older child may make beautiful useful baskets and trays for the home.

Originality in the child has full play and should always be encouraged since the field of work in this ground is abundant; and he should never be discouraged, no matter how loose the weaving may be nor how crude it may look: he will soon be able, through comparison, to discover his mistakes and correct the poor work.



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The child who works steadily over a basket

The child who works steadily over a basket



The child who works steadily over a basket, and may have it to weave and reweave many times before completing it satisfactorily, is not only receiving a valuable lesson in patience and thoroughness, and gaining much experience which will be of inestimable value later on in this particular work, but he is being trained into an efficient workman of the future.

Basket making, which handwork the children love best to do, not only develops their judgment, makes keen their observation, makes them discriminating, but it has a stimulating effect upon their minds and awakens in them the desire to put forth their best efforts. Hanging baskets, scrap baskets, trays, etc., mean something more to them than a piece of basket work done merely because of its utility. Instinctively they recognize the true intrinsic value of the work and that they are real workers, but also it is the beauty and the surprises in basketry development that has its strong and attractive appeal for them.



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The desire to construct and create is strong in childhood

The desire to construct and create is strong in childhood



The desire to construct and create is strong in childhood, and here in basketry will be found an astonishing aid in inspiring such desire and in developing constructive ability. Children, especially boys, find it fascinating and it is a work which appeals to them in all their moods; frequently when they are unable to do any other kind of school work they turn with delight to basketry.



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Through it can be given lessons in patience

Through it can be given lessons in patience



Basket work is a valuable aid in the character building of the child, for, through it can be given lessons in patience, perseverance and concentration, while truth and honesty can be effectually impressed on the worker, resulting in the gradual though steady developing of the will power.

Our reorganized school systems show what a specific educational value manual training has, not alone in the manual skill which the child attains, but also in the mental, moral and economic values which it gains.



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Basketry is an important factor in the promotion of education

Basketry is an important factor in the promotion of education



Basketry is an important factor in the promotion of education. Its wide influence is felt not only in the class room but in homes, settlement work, blind institutions, asylums, in fact in institutions of all kinds. The importance and influence of basketry is being recognized now and the work is being carried on in earnest. Within the past five years it has made a great jump and in most institutions where manual training has been introduced, basket making has attained a prominent place in the training of the child.



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Its poetry and its artistry would be a revelation

Its poetry and its artistry would be a revelation



Serious study of Indian basketry would serve both as an inspiration and stimulation to better work: its intricacy, its poetry and its artistry would be a revelation, and give a fuller understanding of a people so sadly misunderstood.

Basketry was used by the primitive Indians in carrying water. When there was a scarcity, and careful conservation was necessary, the basket was the article used as a conveyance. Some of the California Indians up to this day use their baskets successfully as cooking utensils, while the bassinet, made out of basketry, was, and is still, used by the Indian to hold the papoose.



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Though the Chinese and Japanese have sent us

Though the Chinese and Japanese have sent us



Though the Chinese and Japanese have sent us, for long years, marvelous things of beauty, it is to our American Indian that we owe our debt for beauty and artistry of this industry; for industry it is.

It seems quite impossible to me to write on basketry without mentioning the Indian and his connection with it, for we can very safely call him the master artist of basket work. In its history, and a romantic one it is, the Indian figures first and last. The Indian woman was never satisfied with the materials just at hand; she sought for and tried all kinds, in season and out of season, and she chose, unerringly, the best. Her patience was without limit in her experiments in materials, dyes and weaves, with the result that her basketry is the peer of any in the world. Her sample work was nature and into every line of her basket she wove a meaning symbolical of something in particular.



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Preface of Practical basketry

Preface of Practical basketry


Basketry is one of the oldest and most valuable of the crafts. As far back as the time of the Israelites we read of its usefulness in offering sacrifices. Of necessity it was born, and in its infancy was made into simple forms, but very soon its importance to man was so duly felt and appreciated that new forms took shape, and its uses were so extended that the early basket makers vied with one another in producing pleasing work and in discovering new and various kinds of materials to put into it.



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The Samoan Stitch Lace Effect

The Samoan Stitch Lace Effect



The Samoan Stitch (Lace Effect). Baskets that are to be lined are very pretty made of this stitch. It is also very effective combined with other stitches, or as the finishing coil of a basket.

The Samoan Stitch is a modification of the Mariposa Stitch, the only difference being in the space between the reeds and the passing of the thread around the long stitch two, three or more times, which gives the lace effect. The reeds must be held firmly, however, and the thread passed around the long stitch times enough to make the basket firm.



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In analyzing this stitch we find that it is made up of three parts

In analyzing this stitch we find that it is made up of three parts



The Mariposa Stitch (Knotted). In analyzing this stitch we find that it is made up of three parts. It is the same as the Lazy Squaw Stitch with the addition of the knotted effect obtained by passing the thread around the long stitch.

Hold the commenced coil in the left hand and work from right to left, (a) Wrap the thread toward you over and around the loose reed once, (b) then over the loose reed again, (c) and down from you between the stitches of the fastened reed, thus binding the two reeds together, (d) bring the needle up between the two reeds at the left side of the long stitch, (e) cross over this stitch, going down between the two reeds at the right of the long stitch. Bring the thread over the loose reed and begin wrapping again as at (a).



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The story of the origin of the name

The story of the origin of the name



The story of the origin of the name "Lazy-Squaw" stitch is interesting. If the squaw was inclined to slight her work she would wrap the loose reed several times before taking the long and more difficult stitch which bound the two reeds together. She would then receive from her companions the ignominious title of "lazy-squaw."

As a modification of this stitch the wrapping of the loose reed is omitted, and the long stitch only is used. This passes each time between the stitches of the coil beneath.


BASKET SHOWING THE MARIPOSA WEAVE.


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This is the stitch used by the Indians

This is the stitch used by the Indians



This is the stitch used by the Indians in making the baskets which they ornamented with feathers, wampum, shells and beads.

The Lazy Squaw Stitch. This stitch is made up of two parts, a long and a short stitch.

Hold the commenced coil in the left hand and work from right to left. (a) Wrap the thread toward you over and around the loose reed once, (b) then over the loose reed again, (c) and down from you between the stitches of the fastened reed and back to (a). This completes the long-and-short stitch.



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A Pass the thread between the two reeds toward you

A Pass the thread between the two reeds toward you



(a) Pass the thread between the two reeds toward you, (b) over the loose reed from you, (c) between the two reeds toward you, (d) down between the stitches of the fastened reed from you, and beginning again at (a) pass the thread between the two reeds toward you completing the figure eight. Draw the two reeds firmly together.


BASKET SHOWING THE LAZY SQUAW WEAVE.


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Description of Basket Stitches.

Description of Basket Stitches.


The stitching proceeds along a continuous coil, so that each stitch is passed beneath the stitches of the coil beneath.

For convenience in analyzing these stitches the two reeds may be designated as the loose reed and the fastened reed.

The Navajo Stitch (Figure Eight). Hold the commenced coil in the left hand which will cause the work to proceed from the right toward the left.



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And these marked on the basket

And these marked on the basket



As an aid in dividing the space for a design a piece of paper may be cut and folded into the desired number of sections, and these marked on the basket. These spaces are then filled in without regard to the exact number of stitches required to cover the reeds.

Beginners should make a study of Indian baskets and their designs.

Finishing the Basket. Cut the end of the reed to a flat point two inches in length, and gradually taper the stitching off so that it shows where it ends as little as possible. The last two rows of the basket might be stitched with colored raffia unless it detracts from the design.


BASKET SHOWING THE NAVAJO WEAVE.


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As haphazard work is not apt to be satisfactory

As haphazard work is not apt to be satisfactory



It is well to have in mind the shape and design before beginning the basket, as haphazard work is not apt to be satisfactory. Baskets can be easily shaped to any desired form, as this depends entirely upon the position of each succeeding reed upon the one below it.

Introduction of Color. All reeds in the coiled basket are wound twice with the raffia. It is important to keep this in mind when putting in designs. The colored raffia is introduced in the same manner that the thread is spliced, by laying it along the reed and sewing over it. When working out designs in color do not cut the thread when changing from one to another, but lay the thread not in use along the reed and sew over it, bringing it out when ready to use it again.


BASKET SHOWING THE NAVAJO WEAVE.


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And by a sharp turn in the thread

And by a sharp turn in the thread



Splicing the Thread. When a new thread is needed lay the end of the old thread along the reed and place the new thread over it, and by a sharp turn in the thread, wind once or twice over both, and continue the stitch as before. When the ends are firmly fastened clip them off.

Shaping the Basket. Coiled basketry admits of the greatest variety in shape and size, from the simple table mat to the exquisitely beautiful jar and vase forms, while the stitches lend themselves to an endless variety of design ranging from the simplest to the most intricate patterns.


BASKETS BEGUN IN THREE DIFFERENT WEAVES.


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Splicing the Reed As the reed naturally

Splicing the Reed As the reed naturally



Splicing the Reed. As the reed naturally coils somewhat take care to splice it so that the coil in the two pieces remains the same, otherwise it would draw apart. Sharpen the top side of one reed and the underside of the other to a long flat point and slip one past the other until the two together form the uniform size of the reed. It is sometimes advisable for a novice to wind the spliced reeds with fine thread, but experience will teach one to do the splicing with the sewing of the basket.



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The end of the reed is not sharpened

The end of the reed is not sharpened



The end of the reed is not sharpened, and must be very soft and pliable, or it cannot be bent together at the desired length, two, three, four, five or more inches from the end, without breaking. It will do no special harm if it splits, however, as it is to be covered with the raffia. Lay the end of the raffia to the end of the reed, along the reed and around the bend, and by a sharp turn in the thread wind four or five times over the raffia, covering the bend in the reed. The two reeds may then be caught together by the stitch selected for the basket, or the "Navajo" or "figure eight stitch" may be used and the other stitch introduced on the second round.


GROUP OF BASKETS SHOWING VARIETY IN SIZE, SHAPE AND DESIGN.


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Baskets may be classified as round or oval

Baskets may be classified as round or oval



Beginning the Basket. Baskets may be classified as round or oval.

A. The Round Basket.

Draw the sharpened end of the pliable reed between the thumb and finger into the smallest possible coil. Lay the end of the raffia to the point and along the sharpened end of the reed and hold it in place with the left hand. By a sharp turn in the thread begin winding over the reed and raffia to the point. Then shape into the coil by sewing through the center, thus forming the "button" as in the illustration.


BASKETS BEGUN IN THREE DIFFERENT WEAVES.
1 Round basket in the Navajo weave.
2 Oval basket in the Lazy Squaw weave.
3 Round basket in the Mariposa weave
B. The Oval Basket:

GROUP OF BASKETS SHOWING VARIETY IN SIZE, SHAPE AND DESIGN.


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Beginning about two inches from one end of the reed

Beginning about two inches from one end of the reed



Beginning about two inches from one end of the reed, sharpen to a flat point. Coil the other end, leaving ten or fifteen inches uncoiled, and tie with raffia two or three times. Soak the reeds in water until very pliable, then remove and wipe dry before using. The raffia may be used wet or dry as one prefers. It may be used in coarse strands for the large baskets or split to any size desired for the finer stitches, but should be kept uniform. The basket sewing requires either the sharp or blunt tapestry needle, varying in size between Number 18 and Number 22. Thread the end of the raffia that has been cut from the tree into the needle, thus working with the fiber, as it is less liable to split. Much of the beauty of the basket will depend upon the smoothness and neatness of the work.



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General Directions For Making The Coil Basket.

General Directions For Making The Coil Basket.


Preparation of Materials. Round reeds are sold in sizes from the very fine Number 0 to the coarse Number 8. Hemp cord of different sizes may be substituted for the reeds of a flexible basket if desired.


BEGINNING A BASKET IN ANY WEAVE.
1 The reed sharpened to a flat point.
2 The end of the sharpened reed wound with raffia.
3 The end of the reed curled into a small "button."
4 Splicing reeds by cutting both to a flat point.


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Rattan and rushes form excellent substitutes

Rattan and rushes form excellent substitutes



The material used by the Indians is not available for us but imported raffia, rattan and rushes form excellent substitutes. Raffia, a product of the Island of Madagascar, is a soft, pliable, yellowish fiber growing next to the bark of a species of palm tree. Rattan is the product of a kind of palm which grows in India. It is stripped of leaves and split into round or flat strips of different sizes.

A more instructive occupation cannot be found for children than basketry and its allied subjects. It not only is fascinating in itself, but develops patience, judgment, dexterity and skill, and embodies the satisfaction of making a beautiful and useful article. It is not only an educative occupation for school, but for the home as well.

Baskets are known as the woven baskets made of the round or flat rattan and the sewed baskets made from the raffia and reeds.



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Basketry is one of the oldest handicrafts known to man.

Basketry is one of the oldest handicrafts known to man.


Basketry.

Basketry is one of the oldest handicrafts known to man, but it reached its greatest excellence with the tribes of American Indians who wove baskets from the grasses, reeds and rushes which they gathered as they wandered from place to place in their nomadic life. These materials were colored with dyes made by cooking the bark of certain trees and the roots and bulbs of plants, a knowledge of which was handed down from mother to daughter.


BEGINNING A BASKET IN ANY WEAVE.

The designs were not meaningless, but represented by symbols their prayers to the Deity for rain, success to a war party, or a petition for favorable crops. Or it might be they chronicled the victory over a hostile tribe, a maiden's love for a stalwart brave, or a thousand other events of their lives in conventionalized symbolic form. The shape, size and use varied as much as the design.



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Avoid over-crowding the rooms with furniture

5 Avoid over-crowding the rooms with furniture



5. Avoid over-crowding the rooms with furniture and cluttering with too many pictures and useless and inartistic bric-a-brac, and dust-collectors.

6. The Care of the Home: This topic will enable the teacher to give many helpful suggestions. Assign sub-divisions of the subject to different members of the class:

a. Sweeping.
b. Dusting.
c. Care of bare floors.
d. Window washing.
e. Dish washing.
f. Care of cupboards.
g. Care of book-shelves, daily papers, magazines, etc.
h. Care of sleeping rooms, beds, etc.
i. Care of bath rooms.


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An Imaginary Home.

An Imaginary Home.


When furnishing a home take into consideration sanitary conditions, use, convenience, economy and artistic effects.

1. Ask pupils to make clippings of house plans from papers, magazines, etc. Study and compare them.

2. Decide upon a plan for a simple house, and have some member of the class draw the floor plans upon the blackboard where it can remain for a time.

3. Several points must be considered in conjunction, that there may may be harmony throughout the house as the rooms open into each other.

a. The color scheme and design for each room. Some samples of cloth or paper to show the exact colors and combinations of colors decided upon.
b. Decoration of the walls.
c. The floor finish or covering.
d. Color of shades and curtains that the outside may present a favorable appearance.

4. Divide the class into sections and assign a room to each section to suggest detail in style of furnishing and decorating.

a. Living Room.
b. Dining Room.
c. Kitchen.
d. Pantry.
e. Hall.
f. Sleeping Rooms.
g. Bath.
h. Laundry.


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Depending upon their needs and environment

Depending upon their needs and environment



Every teacher will invent her own method of reaching her particular class, depending upon their needs and environment, using all necessary tact. An outline is given below which will suggest a few topics and one method of conducting the lessons. There are many kindred subjects, such as good ventilation, plenty of sunlight, good house-keeping, etc., that can be brought into the discussions, but the enthusiasm which is aroused is really the vital point of the lesson.



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Home furnishing, decoration and care.

Home furnishing, decoration and care.


Bright, clean, tasteful and well regulated homes will add more to the sum of human happiness than anything else in life. A happy home does not always mean a costly one. The simple, tidy home of the day laborer may have the home-atmosphere that the mansion may lack. A home can be tastefully, even if cheaply, furnished.

A thoughtful teacher can impart to her class a love of home and a respect and honor for the labor that keeps that home clean, attractive and wholesome, and instill womanly traits that may add greatly to the happiness of the individuals and the betterment of all with whom they come in contact. A familiarity with the conditions of an ideal home and the aroused interest of the girls who will be the home-makers in a few years will have an influence and value that is limitless. The parents, also, may receive suggestions through their children that will react on the present home conditions.



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The decoration of the shade may be varied greatly

The decoration of the shade may be varied greatly



The decoration of the shade may be varied greatly. The design may be drawn upon the back of the cardboard and cut out the same as a stencil, care being taken that the proper bridges are in place. The book-cloth is then pasted on the back. If the cardboard is intended as a framework only, construct a second trapezoid one-half inch inside the other, and cut on the lines. The possibilities for decoration are limitless. A design may be stenciled, embroidered, or worked with any of the fancy stitches upon any thin material through which the light will shine, and then pasted over the back of the frame-work. Fancy silks are also very effective.

When the sections are finished, fasten them together with the passe-partout paper. Lay them all face downward with the sides to be joined placed as closely together as possible, and stick the moistened paper over adjoining edges. Book-cloth or any firm material can be used instead of the passe-partout paper.




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A Four Sided, Collapsible Candle or Lamp Shade.

A Four Sided, Collapsible Candle or Lamp Shade.


Materials: Cardboard; book-cloth or Japanese tissue paper; passe-partout paper.

Cut a pattern of one section of the shade in the form of a trapezoid having the longer parallel five and seven-eighth inches, the shorter parallel one and three-eighth inches and the altitude four and one-half inches. Candle shadeholders are uniform in size being six and one-half inches in circumference. To fit this circular holder, the shade may be rounded out at the top, although it can be used with the straight edge. Cut a strip of cardboard five inches wide, and from this cut the four sides of the shade.



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Picture Framing.

Picture Framing.


Select a mount of the proper color for the picture to be used, and passepartout paper to harmonize. Cut to the desired size and shape. Cut a piece of cardboard to the same size. Have a glass cut to the size of the mount, also a mat for the picture, if desired. Place the picture in position on the mount, and draw guide lines to aid in pasting the picture in place. Put the two rings used for the purpose of hanging the picture, into the cardboard back before putting the parts together. The rings should be placed exactly even, measuring down from the top about one-third of the width of the picture, and in at the sides one inch. Clean the glass carefully, and place it over the picture. Between the cardboard back and the picture place two or three layers of newspaper. Be sure that the back is placed with the rings toward the top. Tie all together very tightly with a strong cord, passing the cord only around one way of the picture. Cut the passepartout paper the length of the picture and crease it over the edges. Moisten the paper and stick it first to the glass and then draw it firmly over the edge and down on the cardboard back. It is necessary to work rapidly after the paper is moistened. Finish the other edge in the same manner. Before removing the cord, tie another around the other way. Finish the two ends in the same manner as the sides, with the exception of the corners. Cut the passe-partout paper an inch longer than the side to be covered, and do not fasten down quite to the corner. Trim for a mitered corner on the glass side and cut a narrow strip the thickness of the glass, and stick it down along the other edge. Tie a cord into the rings for hanging.




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Draw on the book-cloth an oblong five by eight inches

Draw on the book-cloth an oblong five by eight inches



Draw on the book-cloth an oblong five by eight inches, which will leave a margin of one-half inch. Put the glue on the cloth and place the pulp board five by eight inches over the oblong. Turn over the edges and finish. Glue the lining paper in place. Place under weight as soon as finished. The front cover is made the same with the exception of a joint in the pulp board. Draw on the second piece of book-cloth an oblong five by eight inches. Draw a line one inch from and parallel to one end of the oblong. Draw a second line one-fourth of an inch from this. Spread the glue on the cloth and place the two pieces of pulp board on the oblong with a quarter-inch space between them, and proceed as before. Both covers can be made with the joint if desired. Punch with the eyelet tool two holes in each cover three inches apart and one-half inch from the edge, and put in the eyelets. Take care that these holes are directly opposite. Cut the paper for the book into sheets four and one-half by seven and three-fourths inches (or four and one-half by fifteen and one-half inches), and fold. Punch the eyelets exactly even with those in the cover. Place a postal-card three and one-half by five and one-half inches on the sheets with a half-inch margin at top, bottom and end, and make two points on each of the four sides, one one-half inch from the corner, and the other one inch. Connect corresponding points by slant lines and cut with a knife on these lines. The outside cover can be decorated in any way desired. This style of cover can be used for a book of any size or shape.


TWO VIEWS OF A POST CARD ALBUM CLOSED AND OPEN.


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A Postal Card Album.

A Postal Card Album.


Materials: Paper for leaves of book; pulp board in three pieces, 5" × 8", 5" × 6¾", 5" × 1"; book-cloth in two pieces 6" × 9"; lining paper in two pieces 4¾" × 7¾"; glue; eyelet punch and eyelets.


TWO VIEWS OF A POST CARD ALBUM CLOSED AND OPEN.

To be of value the work in this exercise must be exact, with measurements perfectly accurate. The glue is to be used sparingly and spread upon the cloth and not on the pulp board.



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Follow the directions for making the cover of

Follow the directions for making the cover of



Follow the directions for making the cover of the "Blank Book with Paper Cover Re-inforced with Cloth," . The envelopes take the place of the sheets of paper and are fastened in place as follows:
1. On the back and front of the envelopes draw a line parallel to and one-half inch from the bottom.
2. Fold a strip of book-cloth one inch by nine and one-half inches through the center the long way.
3. Glue one-half of this folded strip to the half-inch below the line on the back of one envelope and the other half to the half-inch below the line on the front of another envelope. Continue thus until the four envelopes are fastened together.
4. Glue half of a strip of the cloth to the front of the first envelope and the other half to the front of the cover to hold in the desired position. Do the same at the back.
5. Glue in the lining papers on the covers.
The outside may be decorated as desired.

CLIPPING CASE.


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Clipping Case.

Clipping Case.


Materials: 4 envelopes, 41/8" × 9½"; 4 strips of book-cloth 9½" × 1"; 1 strip of book-cloth 10" × 3½"; 4 pieces of book-cloth 2" × 1¼"; heavy felt paper 9" x 10"; 2 sheets lining paper 4¼" x 9½"; glue. Put the glue on the cloth each time with tooth-picks.


CLIPPING CASE.


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Fold the half-inch strip of book-cloth through the center

Fold the half-inch strip of book-cloth through the center



It is necessary to trim the edges of the flaps that there may be no difficulty in folding one over another. Measure one-half inch from the corners of the flaps and connect this point with the corner of the square, and cut on these lines. Fold the half-inch strip of book-cloth through the center; place the glue on the cloth and glue it for a binding around the raw edges of the case. Finish the corners of the binding with the square or mitered corner. Fold the fastening strap over the opposite side, and place a point at the corners to locate the place where the slit is to be cut. Connect these two points by a straight line and draw another parallel to, and three-fourths of an inch from it. Cut on these lines with a knife. This slit must be strengthened by the book-cloth. Cut a piece two and three-fourths inches by one and one-fourth inches and glue over the strip on the wrong side; clip the edges at the ends of the slit, and bring through to the right side, and glue them down. The piece for the covering of the right side may be cut the exact width of the slit, and the ends cut in some fancy shape. This may be cut from the cloth, or the paper used in the design. The front of the case can be decorated as desired. Very beautiful effects can be obtained by cutting out the design from paper that harmonizes in color and gluing it on. This makes a very useful case for holding school papers, and if neatly and carefully done, is an excellent exercise.


CLIPPING CASE.


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Thus forming an eight-and-a-half inch square in the center

Thus forming an eight-and-a-half inch square in the center



On the wrong side, find the center of the paper twenty inches by fifteen inches by drawing both diagonals. Measure four and one-fourth inches from the center toward the sides. Draw straight lines passing through these points connecting opposite sides, thus forming an eight-and-a-half inch square in the center. Cut out the four corners on these lines. Fold in the four sides on the lines of the square. A strap, which will fasten the case by slipping through a slit cut in the opposite side, is to be made on one of the long flaps as follows:
Place a point at the middle on the edge of the flap, and measure an inch along the edge on both sides of this point. Measure down two inches from these last points and place dots. Connect these dots by straight lines with the top and sides. Cut the corners out on these lines. Trim the end of the strap to a point beginning one-half inch from the corners and cutting to the center point.


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Thursday, January 2, 2014

For no basket can be well made that has a poor bottom

For no basket can be well made that has a poor bottom



The weaving of a round mat or basket is begun in the center and woven out toward the end. It is absolutely necessary that beginners master the fundamental steps, for no basket can be well made that has a poor bottom. In order to avoid this, the mat is practised upon until the art of weaving a good center is accomplished.

The following are the commonest weaves used.



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The First Lesson

The First Lesson


Reed is a brittle material, therefore it must be soaked in water before using. The time required depends on the number of the reed used. No. 00 merely dipped in water can be used successfully. Nos. 1 and 2 can be used after soaking in water ten minutes; Nos. 4 and 5 after fifteen or twenty minutes. Either cold or hot water may be used, the hot water consuming less time to soak the reed than the cold.

No. 4 and No. 2 reeds are commonly used together in ordinary sized baskets. No. 4 for the spokes, which form the foundation upon and around which No. 2, as the weaver, is woven.



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Which is imported from the Philippine Islands

Which is imported from the Philippine Islands



Hemp, which is imported from the Philippine Islands, may be used as a foundation for raffia and sweet grass baskets.

Tools

Very few tools are necessary in basketry, although, to the basket maker, who intends doing much work the following articles are essential: pruning shears, awl, plier, galvanized tub and bucket, measuring stick or rule, knife for splicing the reed. Rubber fingers may be used. For the dyer, rubber gloves and large earthen pots are necessary.



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Is imported and sold in the natural and dull green colors

Is imported and sold in the natural and dull green colors



Rush, flat or braided, is imported and sold in the natural and dull green colors. The flat rush is sold by the pound, the braided by bundles or bunches. The braided rush makes a strong scrap basket; it must be soaked before using to prevent cracking. The flat rush is used in making smaller baskets.

Straw is used as a weaver, and can be woven either wet or dry, but it is better to dip it in water a few minutes before using. Round and oval scrap baskets may be made by combining different colors of the straw with the natural color.



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Oval or split reed comes in sizes 5 and 7

Oval or split reed comes in sizes 5 and 7



Oval or split reed comes in sizes 5 and 7. This reed makes artistic hanging baskets.

The flat 38 inch wide is often used in making foundations for sweet grass baskets, and it also makes durable scrap baskets.

Raffia is the outside covering of the Madagascar palm. It is a light, tough material imported in the natural or straw color, but may be dyed in many beautiful colors. It is sold in bundles or braids of from one to four pounds. Care should be exercised in using this material. It is advisable to keep it in canvas bags or hang it in braids in the class room, as careless handling may cause untidiness or tend to disorder in the class room.



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The round reed varies in sizes from

The round reed varies in sizes from No



The round reed varies in sizes from No. 00 to No. 17; No. 00 being the finest, is used in making the centers of baskets, in finishing handles, and in making very small baskets and trays. Sizes 1 to 5 are used in making ordinary size baskets and trays, 5 and 6 for scrap baskets, 8 and 10 for handle foundations.

The reed comes only in the natural color, but may be dyed into many beautiful colors either before or after the article is made.



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The reed is manufactured from the rattan

The reed is manufactured from the rattan



The reed is manufactured from the rattan. It has been manufactured in America for about sixty years. There are a number of such manufacturing plants, among which the Wakefield Rattan Company and the New England Company have made splendid reed. Germany and Belgium give us the best reed, while the least desirable quality comes from China.

The outer surface of the rattan is glazed. It is cut in long narrow strips, and is familiar to everyone under the name “cane.” It is used in caning chairs. From the pith or inside rattan, we get the reed known as oval, flat and round, the latter being most extensively used.



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Equipment. The materials used in making these baskets.

Equipment. The materials used in making these baskets.


Materials

The materials used in making these baskets are rattan or reed, raffia, rush, straw, hemp.

Rattan is a palm which grows wild in India, Japan, China and East India Islands. The rattan seed is black and corresponds in size to a pea. It is a notable fact that, while growing, the rattan always faces the sun. The shoot of this seed grows four years; it is then cut close. The plant produces almost three hundred shoots which are cut annually. These slender shoots attain a length of from three to five hundred feet. They climb the highest trees and hang from them in graceful festoons. It is interesting to see how, like the selfish pumpkin vine, they crowd out any other plant that should happen to be in the way. By small fibres which spring from the joints, they fasten themselves to the trees, and they hold so tenaciously and have such grip or strength that it requires several men, sometimes as many as a half dozen, to separate and remove them.



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Sequence in basketry should be followed carefully with beginners

Sequence in basketry should be followed carefully with beginners



Sequence in basketry should be followed carefully with beginners, and although it will be impossible to give in detail all the steps included in the subject, the most essential and important will be given, with many suggestions in models for advanced workers.

In conclusion, just a word to the special class teacher of backward, defective, and the backward or defective delinquents. The course presented in this book may be used in the sequence given or adapted just as is necessary to the class of children taught. Most of the models here demonstrated have been successfully taught to children in the backward delinquent class and have been a means of promoting, mentally and morally, the welfare of the child; directing his miscontrolled energy into proper channels, besides making his school life a brighter and happier one.

That this book may be of help to the basket maker and that it may bring much success and happiness to the reader is the wish of the author who has spent many happy hours in preparing it.



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I would suggest that children be permitted to

I would suggest that children be permitted to



I would suggest that children be permitted to criticise their own and each other’s work.

The celebrating of the holiday seasons can be nicely carried out in the manual training period when the making of birthday gifts, Christmas trays, Easter baskets, sewing baskets, hanging baskets and scrap baskets can be appropriately introduced. Try this suggestion, and watch the happiness of the child who makes gifts for his loved ones.



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Owing to the simplicity of basketry the work

Owing to the simplicity of basketry the work



Owing to the simplicity of basketry the work is being generally accepted. The child of seven or eight years may make a simple mat and basket and find it play work, while the older child may make beautiful useful baskets and trays for the home.

Originality in the child has full play and should always be encouraged since the field of work in this ground is abundant; and he should never be discouraged, no matter how loose the weaving may be nor how crude it may look: he will soon be able, through comparison, to discover his mistakes and correct the poor work.



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The child who works steadily over a basket

The child who works steadily over a basket



The child who works steadily over a basket, and may have it to weave and reweave many times before completing it satisfactorily, is not only receiving a valuable lesson in patience and thoroughness, and gaining much experience which will be of inestimable value later on in this particular work, but he is being trained into an efficient workman of the future.

Basket making, which handwork the children love best to do, not only develops their judgment, makes keen their observation, makes them discriminating, but it has a stimulating effect upon their minds and awakens in them the desire to put forth their best efforts. Hanging baskets, scrap baskets, trays, etc., mean something more to them than a piece of basket work done merely because of its utility. Instinctively they recognize the true intrinsic value of the work and that they are real workers, but also it is the beauty and the surprises in basketry development that has its strong and attractive appeal for them.



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The desire to construct and create is strong in childhood

The desire to construct and create is strong in childhood



The desire to construct and create is strong in childhood, and here in basketry will be found an astonishing aid in inspiring such desire and in developing constructive ability. Children, especially boys, find it fascinating and it is a work which appeals to them in all their moods; frequently when they are unable to do any other kind of school work they turn with delight to basketry.



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Through it can be given lessons in patience

Through it can be given lessons in patience



Basket work is a valuable aid in the character building of the child, for, through it can be given lessons in patience, perseverance and concentration, while truth and honesty can be effectually impressed on the worker, resulting in the gradual though steady developing of the will power.

Our reorganized school systems show what a specific educational value manual training has, not alone in the manual skill which the child attains, but also in the mental, moral and economic values which it gains.



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Basketry is an important factor in the promotion of education

Basketry is an important factor in the promotion of education



Basketry is an important factor in the promotion of education. Its wide influence is felt not only in the class room but in homes, settlement work, blind institutions, asylums, in fact in institutions of all kinds. The importance and influence of basketry is being recognized now and the work is being carried on in earnest. Within the past five years it has made a great jump and in most institutions where manual training has been introduced, basket making has attained a prominent place in the training of the child.



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Its poetry and its artistry would be a revelation

Its poetry and its artistry would be a revelation



Serious study of Indian basketry would serve both as an inspiration and stimulation to better work: its intricacy, its poetry and its artistry would be a revelation, and give a fuller understanding of a people so sadly misunderstood.

Basketry was used by the primitive Indians in carrying water. When there was a scarcity, and careful conservation was necessary, the basket was the article used as a conveyance. Some of the California Indians up to this day use their baskets successfully as cooking utensils, while the bassinet, made out of basketry, was, and is still, used by the Indian to hold the papoose.



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Though the Chinese and Japanese have sent us

Though the Chinese and Japanese have sent us



Though the Chinese and Japanese have sent us, for long years, marvelous things of beauty, it is to our American Indian that we owe our debt for beauty and artistry of this industry; for industry it is.

It seems quite impossible to me to write on basketry without mentioning the Indian and his connection with it, for we can very safely call him the master artist of basket work. In its history, and a romantic one it is, the Indian figures first and last. The Indian woman was never satisfied with the materials just at hand; she sought for and tried all kinds, in season and out of season, and she chose, unerringly, the best. Her patience was without limit in her experiments in materials, dyes and weaves, with the result that her basketry is the peer of any in the world. Her sample work was nature and into every line of her basket she wove a meaning symbolical of something in particular.



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Preface of Practical basketry

Preface of Practical basketry


Basketry is one of the oldest and most valuable of the crafts. As far back as the time of the Israelites we read of its usefulness in offering sacrifices. Of necessity it was born, and in its infancy was made into simple forms, but very soon its importance to man was so duly felt and appreciated that new forms took shape, and its uses were so extended that the early basket makers vied with one another in producing pleasing work and in discovering new and various kinds of materials to put into it.



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The Samoan Stitch Lace Effect

The Samoan Stitch Lace Effect



The Samoan Stitch (Lace Effect). Baskets that are to be lined are very pretty made of this stitch. It is also very effective combined with other stitches, or as the finishing coil of a basket.

The Samoan Stitch is a modification of the Mariposa Stitch, the only difference being in the space between the reeds and the passing of the thread around the long stitch two, three or more times, which gives the lace effect. The reeds must be held firmly, however, and the thread passed around the long stitch times enough to make the basket firm.



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In analyzing this stitch we find that it is made up of three parts

In analyzing this stitch we find that it is made up of three parts



The Mariposa Stitch (Knotted). In analyzing this stitch we find that it is made up of three parts. It is the same as the Lazy Squaw Stitch with the addition of the knotted effect obtained by passing the thread around the long stitch.

Hold the commenced coil in the left hand and work from right to left, (a) Wrap the thread toward you over and around the loose reed once, (b) then over the loose reed again, (c) and down from you between the stitches of the fastened reed, thus binding the two reeds together, (d) bring the needle up between the two reeds at the left side of the long stitch, (e) cross over this stitch, going down between the two reeds at the right of the long stitch. Bring the thread over the loose reed and begin wrapping again as at (a).



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The story of the origin of the name

The story of the origin of the name



The story of the origin of the name "Lazy-Squaw" stitch is interesting. If the squaw was inclined to slight her work she would wrap the loose reed several times before taking the long and more difficult stitch which bound the two reeds together. She would then receive from her companions the ignominious title of "lazy-squaw."

As a modification of this stitch the wrapping of the loose reed is omitted, and the long stitch only is used. This passes each time between the stitches of the coil beneath.


BASKET SHOWING THE MARIPOSA WEAVE.


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This is the stitch used by the Indians

This is the stitch used by the Indians



This is the stitch used by the Indians in making the baskets which they ornamented with feathers, wampum, shells and beads.

The Lazy Squaw Stitch. This stitch is made up of two parts, a long and a short stitch.

Hold the commenced coil in the left hand and work from right to left. (a) Wrap the thread toward you over and around the loose reed once, (b) then over the loose reed again, (c) and down from you between the stitches of the fastened reed and back to (a). This completes the long-and-short stitch.



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A Pass the thread between the two reeds toward you

A Pass the thread between the two reeds toward you



(a) Pass the thread between the two reeds toward you, (b) over the loose reed from you, (c) between the two reeds toward you, (d) down between the stitches of the fastened reed from you, and beginning again at (a) pass the thread between the two reeds toward you completing the figure eight. Draw the two reeds firmly together.


BASKET SHOWING THE LAZY SQUAW WEAVE.


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Description of Basket Stitches.

Description of Basket Stitches.


The stitching proceeds along a continuous coil, so that each stitch is passed beneath the stitches of the coil beneath.

For convenience in analyzing these stitches the two reeds may be designated as the loose reed and the fastened reed.

The Navajo Stitch (Figure Eight). Hold the commenced coil in the left hand which will cause the work to proceed from the right toward the left.



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And these marked on the basket

And these marked on the basket



As an aid in dividing the space for a design a piece of paper may be cut and folded into the desired number of sections, and these marked on the basket. These spaces are then filled in without regard to the exact number of stitches required to cover the reeds.

Beginners should make a study of Indian baskets and their designs.

Finishing the Basket. Cut the end of the reed to a flat point two inches in length, and gradually taper the stitching off so that it shows where it ends as little as possible. The last two rows of the basket might be stitched with colored raffia unless it detracts from the design.


BASKET SHOWING THE NAVAJO WEAVE.


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As haphazard work is not apt to be satisfactory

As haphazard work is not apt to be satisfactory



It is well to have in mind the shape and design before beginning the basket, as haphazard work is not apt to be satisfactory. Baskets can be easily shaped to any desired form, as this depends entirely upon the position of each succeeding reed upon the one below it.

Introduction of Color. All reeds in the coiled basket are wound twice with the raffia. It is important to keep this in mind when putting in designs. The colored raffia is introduced in the same manner that the thread is spliced, by laying it along the reed and sewing over it. When working out designs in color do not cut the thread when changing from one to another, but lay the thread not in use along the reed and sew over it, bringing it out when ready to use it again.


BASKET SHOWING THE NAVAJO WEAVE.


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And by a sharp turn in the thread

And by a sharp turn in the thread



Splicing the Thread. When a new thread is needed lay the end of the old thread along the reed and place the new thread over it, and by a sharp turn in the thread, wind once or twice over both, and continue the stitch as before. When the ends are firmly fastened clip them off.

Shaping the Basket. Coiled basketry admits of the greatest variety in shape and size, from the simple table mat to the exquisitely beautiful jar and vase forms, while the stitches lend themselves to an endless variety of design ranging from the simplest to the most intricate patterns.


BASKETS BEGUN IN THREE DIFFERENT WEAVES.


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Splicing the Reed As the reed naturally

Splicing the Reed As the reed naturally



Splicing the Reed. As the reed naturally coils somewhat take care to splice it so that the coil in the two pieces remains the same, otherwise it would draw apart. Sharpen the top side of one reed and the underside of the other to a long flat point and slip one past the other until the two together form the uniform size of the reed. It is sometimes advisable for a novice to wind the spliced reeds with fine thread, but experience will teach one to do the splicing with the sewing of the basket.



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The end of the reed is not sharpened

The end of the reed is not sharpened



The end of the reed is not sharpened, and must be very soft and pliable, or it cannot be bent together at the desired length, two, three, four, five or more inches from the end, without breaking. It will do no special harm if it splits, however, as it is to be covered with the raffia. Lay the end of the raffia to the end of the reed, along the reed and around the bend, and by a sharp turn in the thread wind four or five times over the raffia, covering the bend in the reed. The two reeds may then be caught together by the stitch selected for the basket, or the "Navajo" or "figure eight stitch" may be used and the other stitch introduced on the second round.


GROUP OF BASKETS SHOWING VARIETY IN SIZE, SHAPE AND DESIGN.


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Baskets may be classified as round or oval

Baskets may be classified as round or oval



Beginning the Basket. Baskets may be classified as round or oval.

A. The Round Basket.

Draw the sharpened end of the pliable reed between the thumb and finger into the smallest possible coil. Lay the end of the raffia to the point and along the sharpened end of the reed and hold it in place with the left hand. By a sharp turn in the thread begin winding over the reed and raffia to the point. Then shape into the coil by sewing through the center, thus forming the "button" as in the illustration.


BASKETS BEGUN IN THREE DIFFERENT WEAVES.
1 Round basket in the Navajo weave.
2 Oval basket in the Lazy Squaw weave.
3 Round basket in the Mariposa weave
B. The Oval Basket:

GROUP OF BASKETS SHOWING VARIETY IN SIZE, SHAPE AND DESIGN.


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Beginning about two inches from one end of the reed

Beginning about two inches from one end of the reed



Beginning about two inches from one end of the reed, sharpen to a flat point. Coil the other end, leaving ten or fifteen inches uncoiled, and tie with raffia two or three times. Soak the reeds in water until very pliable, then remove and wipe dry before using. The raffia may be used wet or dry as one prefers. It may be used in coarse strands for the large baskets or split to any size desired for the finer stitches, but should be kept uniform. The basket sewing requires either the sharp or blunt tapestry needle, varying in size between Number 18 and Number 22. Thread the end of the raffia that has been cut from the tree into the needle, thus working with the fiber, as it is less liable to split. Much of the beauty of the basket will depend upon the smoothness and neatness of the work.



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General Directions For Making The Coil Basket.

General Directions For Making The Coil Basket.

General Directions For Making The Coil Basket.


Preparation of Materials. Round reeds are sold in sizes from the very fine Number 0 to the coarse Number 8. Hemp cord of different sizes may be substituted for the reeds of a flexible basket if desired.


BEGINNING A BASKET IN ANY WEAVE.
1 The reed sharpened to a flat point.
2 The end of the sharpened reed wound with raffia.
3 The end of the reed curled into a small "button."
4 Splicing reeds by cutting both to a flat point.


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Rattan and rushes form excellent substitutes

Rattan and rushes form excellent substitutes



The material used by the Indians is not available for us but imported raffia, rattan and rushes form excellent substitutes. Raffia, a product of the Island of Madagascar, is a soft, pliable, yellowish fiber growing next to the bark of a species of palm tree. Rattan is the product of a kind of palm which grows in India. It is stripped of leaves and split into round or flat strips of different sizes.

A more instructive occupation cannot be found for children than basketry and its allied subjects. It not only is fascinating in itself, but develops patience, judgment, dexterity and skill, and embodies the satisfaction of making a beautiful and useful article. It is not only an educative occupation for school, but for the home as well.

Baskets are known as the woven baskets made of the round or flat rattan and the sewed baskets made from the raffia and reeds.



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Basketry.

Basketry.

Basketry is one of the oldest handicrafts known to man.


Basketry.

Basketry is one of the oldest handicrafts known to man, but it reached its greatest excellence with the tribes of American Indians who wove baskets from the grasses, reeds and rushes which they gathered as they wandered from place to place in their nomadic life. These materials were colored with dyes made by cooking the bark of certain trees and the roots and bulbs of plants, a knowledge of which was handed down from mother to daughter.


BEGINNING A BASKET IN ANY WEAVE.

The designs were not meaningless, but represented by symbols their prayers to the Deity for rain, success to a war party, or a petition for favorable crops. Or it might be they chronicled the victory over a hostile tribe, a maiden's love for a stalwart brave, or a thousand other events of their lives in conventionalized symbolic form. The shape, size and use varied as much as the design.



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Avoid over-crowding the rooms with furniture

5 Avoid over-crowding the rooms with furniture



5. Avoid over-crowding the rooms with furniture and cluttering with too many pictures and useless and inartistic bric-a-brac, and dust-collectors.

6. The Care of the Home: This topic will enable the teacher to give many helpful suggestions. Assign sub-divisions of the subject to different members of the class:

a. Sweeping.
b. Dusting.
c. Care of bare floors.
d. Window washing.
e. Dish washing.
f. Care of cupboards.
g. Care of book-shelves, daily papers, magazines, etc.
h. Care of sleeping rooms, beds, etc.
i. Care of bath rooms.


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An Imaginary Home.

An Imaginary Home.


When furnishing a home take into consideration sanitary conditions, use, convenience, economy and artistic effects.

1. Ask pupils to make clippings of house plans from papers, magazines, etc. Study and compare them.

2. Decide upon a plan for a simple house, and have some member of the class draw the floor plans upon the blackboard where it can remain for a time.

3. Several points must be considered in conjunction, that there may may be harmony throughout the house as the rooms open into each other.

a. The color scheme and design for each room. Some samples of cloth or paper to show the exact colors and combinations of colors decided upon.
b. Decoration of the walls.
c. The floor finish or covering.
d. Color of shades and curtains that the outside may present a favorable appearance.

4. Divide the class into sections and assign a room to each section to suggest detail in style of furnishing and decorating.

a. Living Room.
b. Dining Room.
c. Kitchen.
d. Pantry.
e. Hall.
f. Sleeping Rooms.
g. Bath.
h. Laundry.


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Depending upon their needs and environment

Depending upon their needs and environment



Every teacher will invent her own method of reaching her particular class, depending upon their needs and environment, using all necessary tact. An outline is given below which will suggest a few topics and one method of conducting the lessons. There are many kindred subjects, such as good ventilation, plenty of sunlight, good house-keeping, etc., that can be brought into the discussions, but the enthusiasm which is aroused is really the vital point of the lesson.



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Home furnishing, decoration and care.

Home furnishing, decoration and care.


Bright, clean, tasteful and well regulated homes will add more to the sum of human happiness than anything else in life. A happy home does not always mean a costly one. The simple, tidy home of the day laborer may have the home-atmosphere that the mansion may lack. A home can be tastefully, even if cheaply, furnished.

A thoughtful teacher can impart to her class a love of home and a respect and honor for the labor that keeps that home clean, attractive and wholesome, and instill womanly traits that may add greatly to the happiness of the individuals and the betterment of all with whom they come in contact. A familiarity with the conditions of an ideal home and the aroused interest of the girls who will be the home-makers in a few years will have an influence and value that is limitless. The parents, also, may receive suggestions through their children that will react on the present home conditions.



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The decoration of the shade may be varied greatly

The decoration of the shade may be varied greatly



The decoration of the shade may be varied greatly. The design may be drawn upon the back of the cardboard and cut out the same as a stencil, care being taken that the proper bridges are in place. The book-cloth is then pasted on the back. If the cardboard is intended as a framework only, construct a second trapezoid one-half inch inside the other, and cut on the lines. The possibilities for decoration are limitless. A design may be stenciled, embroidered, or worked with any of the fancy stitches upon any thin material through which the light will shine, and then pasted over the back of the frame-work. Fancy silks are also very effective.

When the sections are finished, fasten them together with the passe-partout paper. Lay them all face downward with the sides to be joined placed as closely together as possible, and stick the moistened paper over adjoining edges. Book-cloth or any firm material can be used instead of the passe-partout paper.




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A Four Sided, Collapsible Candle or Lamp Shade.

A Four Sided, Collapsible Candle or Lamp Shade.


Materials: Cardboard; book-cloth or Japanese tissue paper; passe-partout paper.

Cut a pattern of one section of the shade in the form of a trapezoid having the longer parallel five and seven-eighth inches, the shorter parallel one and three-eighth inches and the altitude four and one-half inches. Candle shadeholders are uniform in size being six and one-half inches in circumference. To fit this circular holder, the shade may be rounded out at the top, although it can be used with the straight edge. Cut a strip of cardboard five inches wide, and from this cut the four sides of the shade.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Picture Framing.

Picture Framing.


Select a mount of the proper color for the picture to be used, and passepartout paper to harmonize. Cut to the desired size and shape. Cut a piece of cardboard to the same size. Have a glass cut to the size of the mount, also a mat for the picture, if desired. Place the picture in position on the mount, and draw guide lines to aid in pasting the picture in place. Put the two rings used for the purpose of hanging the picture, into the cardboard back before putting the parts together. The rings should be placed exactly even, measuring down from the top about one-third of the width of the picture, and in at the sides one inch. Clean the glass carefully, and place it over the picture. Between the cardboard back and the picture place two or three layers of newspaper. Be sure that the back is placed with the rings toward the top. Tie all together very tightly with a strong cord, passing the cord only around one way of the picture. Cut the passepartout paper the length of the picture and crease it over the edges. Moisten the paper and stick it first to the glass and then draw it firmly over the edge and down on the cardboard back. It is necessary to work rapidly after the paper is moistened. Finish the other edge in the same manner. Before removing the cord, tie another around the other way. Finish the two ends in the same manner as the sides, with the exception of the corners. Cut the passe-partout paper an inch longer than the side to be covered, and do not fasten down quite to the corner. Trim for a mitered corner on the glass side and cut a narrow strip the thickness of the glass, and stick it down along the other edge. Tie a cord into the rings for hanging.




Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Draw on the book-cloth an oblong five by eight inches

Draw on the book-cloth an oblong five by eight inches



Draw on the book-cloth an oblong five by eight inches, which will leave a margin of one-half inch. Put the glue on the cloth and place the pulp board five by eight inches over the oblong. Turn over the edges and finish. Glue the lining paper in place. Place under weight as soon as finished. The front cover is made the same with the exception of a joint in the pulp board. Draw on the second piece of book-cloth an oblong five by eight inches. Draw a line one inch from and parallel to one end of the oblong. Draw a second line one-fourth of an inch from this. Spread the glue on the cloth and place the two pieces of pulp board on the oblong with a quarter-inch space between them, and proceed as before. Both covers can be made with the joint if desired. Punch with the eyelet tool two holes in each cover three inches apart and one-half inch from the edge, and put in the eyelets. Take care that these holes are directly opposite. Cut the paper for the book into sheets four and one-half by seven and three-fourths inches (or four and one-half by fifteen and one-half inches), and fold. Punch the eyelets exactly even with those in the cover. Place a postal-card three and one-half by five and one-half inches on the sheets with a half-inch margin at top, bottom and end, and make two points on each of the four sides, one one-half inch from the corner, and the other one inch. Connect corresponding points by slant lines and cut with a knife on these lines. The outside cover can be decorated in any way desired. This style of cover can be used for a book of any size or shape.


TWO VIEWS OF A POST CARD ALBUM CLOSED AND OPEN.


Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

A Postal Card Album.

A Postal Card Album.


Materials: Paper for leaves of book; pulp board in three pieces, 5" × 8", 5" × 6¾", 5" × 1"; book-cloth in two pieces 6" × 9"; lining paper in two pieces 4¾" × 7¾"; glue; eyelet punch and eyelets.


TWO VIEWS OF A POST CARD ALBUM CLOSED AND OPEN.

To be of value the work in this exercise must be exact, with measurements perfectly accurate. The glue is to be used sparingly and spread upon the cloth and not on the pulp board.



Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Follow the directions for making the cover of

Follow the directions for making the cover of



Follow the directions for making the cover of the "Blank Book with Paper Cover Re-inforced with Cloth," . The envelopes take the place of the sheets of paper and are fastened in place as follows:

1. On the back and front of the envelopes draw a line parallel to and one-half inch from the bottom.

2. Fold a strip of book-cloth one inch by nine and one-half inches through the center the long way.

3. Glue one-half of this folded strip to the half-inch below the line on the back of one envelope and the other half to the half-inch below the line on the front of another envelope. Continue thus until the four envelopes are fastened together.

4. Glue half of a strip of the cloth to the front of the first envelope and the other half to the front of the cover to hold in the desired position. Do the same at the back.

5. Glue in the lining papers on the covers.

The outside may be decorated as desired.


CLIPPING CASE.


Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Clipping Case.

Clipping Case.


Materials: 4 envelopes, 41/8" × 9½"; 4 strips of book-cloth 9½" × 1"; 1 strip of book-cloth 10" × 3½"; 4 pieces of book-cloth 2" × 1¼"; heavy felt paper 9" x 10"; 2 sheets lining paper 4¼" x 9½"; glue. Put the glue on the cloth each time with tooth-picks.


CLIPPING CASE.


Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft

Fold the half-inch strip of book-cloth through the center

Fold the half-inch strip of book-cloth through the center



It is necessary to trim the edges of the flaps that there may be no difficulty in folding one over another. Measure one-half inch from the corners of the flaps and connect this point with the corner of the square, and cut on these lines. Fold the half-inch strip of book-cloth through the center; place the glue on the cloth and glue it for a binding around the raw edges of the case. Finish the corners of the binding with the square or mitered corner. Fold the fastening strap over the opposite side, and place a point at the corners to locate the place where the slit is to be cut. Connect these two points by a straight line and draw another parallel to, and three-fourths of an inch from it. Cut on these lines with a knife. This slit must be strengthened by the book-cloth. Cut a piece two and three-fourths inches by one and one-fourth inches and glue over the strip on the wrong side; clip the edges at the ends of the slit, and bring through to the right side, and glue them down. The piece for the covering of the right side may be cut the exact width of the slit, and the ends cut in some fancy shape. This may be cut from the cloth, or the paper used in the design. The front of the case can be decorated as desired. Very beautiful effects can be obtained by cutting out the design from paper that harmonizes in color and gluing it on. This makes a very useful case for holding school papers, and if neatly and carefully done, is an excellent exercise.


CLIPPING CASE.


Fonte:  Basketry and Handicraft