Thursday, July 31, 2014

On the flannel patch and for finishing the flannel seam

On the flannel patch and for finishing the flannel seam

On the flannel patch and for finishing the flannel seam



Herringbone Stitch. The herringbone or catch stitch is a cross stitch used to finish the raw edges of flannel or heavy material. It serves both the purpose of overcasting over a raw edge and that of hemming. It is used on raw edged hems to avoid the ridge formed by the first fold of a hem, on the flannel patch and for finishing the flannel seam, which may be pressed open and both single edges herringbone stitched, or both folded to one side and finished over the double edge. In most cases the open seam looks better.

Take up on the needle three or four of the cross threads

Take up on the needle three or four of the cross threads

Take up on the needle three or four of the cross threads



(1) Pointing the needle toward you and holding the thread under the left thumb, take up on the needle three or four of the cross threads. Draw the needle out over the thread, thus forming the loop, and tight enough to separate the cross threads.

(2) Insert the needle under the edge of the hem only and take an ordinary hemming stitch. Repeat 1 and 2 for the next stitch.

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Careful basting is indispensable to good hemstitching

Careful basting is indispensable to good hemstitching

Careful basting is indispensable to good hemstitching



b. The Hem Turn the first fold of the hem and baste to the exact line of the opening. Careful basting is indispensable to good hemstitching, and especially so at a corner where two hems cross. Miter all corners of hems that are more than one-fourth of an inch in width.

c. The Stitch Hold the cloth over the left forefinger as in ordinary hemming. Bury the knot by inserting the needle under the edge of the hem and drawing it through. The stitch consists of two distinct parts, (1) forming the loop around the cross threads, and (2) catching down to the edge of the hem:

Drawing the threads Measuring from the edge of the cloth

Drawing the threads Measuring from the edge of the cloth

Drawing the threads Measuring from the edge of the cloth



a. Drawing the threads Measuring from the edge of the cloth, allow twice the width of the desired hem when finished, plus the first fold, and draw several threads, the exact number depending upon the texture of the fabric. Draw the first thread the entire length before starting the second, as it is liable to break where the first one did. The first thread being drawn, the second will come more readily. Beginners are inclined to draw too many threads. Unless both edges are to be hemstitched the opening should be narrow enough so that the threads at the top will not loosen.

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

The hem turned to the line thus formed

The hem turned to the line thus formed

The hem turned to the line thus formed



Hemstitching. Hemstitching is a method of hemming in which a few parallel threads are drawn, the hem turned to the line thus formed, and hemmed down with the same stitch that separates the cross threads in successive clusters. There are several modifications of the hemstitch. The following methods have been selected as being the best for four reasons: (1) The thread is thrown under the edge of the hem, and consequently wears longer and shows less. (2) The only part of the thread showing on the right side is the loop around the cross threads. (3) It is readily taught to children, as it is simple, easy to remember, and can be given as two distinct parts. (4) It is the natural way to hold the hem.

This consists of alternating groups of two

This consists of alternating groups of two

This consists of alternating groups of two



B. Double Feather Stitching.

This consists of alternating groups of two, three or more stitches instead of single stitches. The successive stitches of each group must be placed directly under the first stitch of the group.

French Knot. Bring the needle through from the under side. With the needle in the right hand, take hold of the thread with the left hand about an inch from the cloth and, holding it taut, wind it several times around the point of the needle. Return the needle to the same hole through which it came out, and draw it back to the under side.

Monday, July 28, 2014

Holding the cloth over the left forefinger

Holding the cloth over the left forefinger

Holding the cloth over the left forefinger



A. Single Feather Stitching.

Work toward you, holding the cloth over the left forefinger. With a knot in the thread insert the needle from the under side a short distance to the right or left of the line the feather stitching is to follow (which may be designated the center line) and draw the thread through. Place the left thumb over the thread to hold it down, and on the opposite side take up a slanting stitch, the top of which is as far from the center line as the length of the stitch, and the bottom touching the center line. Draw the needle out over the thread which will thus form a loop of the thread from the first stitch. On the opposite side take up another slanting stitch the top of which is an equal distance from the center line and even with the bottom of the last stitch. Repeat for successive stitches. At the end of a thread fasten by passing the needle down where the thread last came through the cloth, thus holding the loop from the last stitch in place. Begin a new thread by passing the needle up through this loop.

Couching Couching is a coarse blanket stitch

Couching Couching is a coarse blanket stitch

Couching Couching is a coarse blanket stitch



Couching. Couching is a coarse blanket stitch done over two or three strands of silk, linen or cotton floss. It makes an attractive finish for a hem line and also for finishing the edge in applique.

Feather Stitch. The principal use of the feather stitch being that of ornamentation requires that it shall be evenly and carefully done, or it fails in its purpose. The feather stitch consists of alternating stitches, or groups of stitches, slanting toward a center line. The stitch may be varied greatly by the length of the stitch, the slant of the stitch, and the number of stitches on each side. The tendency is to gradually increase the length of the stitch which must be carefully avoided, as well as a change in the slant. Do not make too long a stitch, as there is danger of catching and breaking the thread. The feather stitch can be used very effectively in scroll designs for the ornamentation of sofa pillows, cushion covers, collars, underwear, etc.

Sunday, July 27, 2014

The chain stitch is used for outlining a design

The chain stitch is used for outlining a design

The chain stitch is used for outlining a design



Chain Stitch. The chain stitch is used for outlining a design, marking garments, etc. Insert the needle on the line and draw the thread through to the knot. Insert again at the same point and take up on the needle cloth for the desired length of stitch and draw the needle out over the thread. In placing the needle for succeeding stitches begin inside the preceding stitch. The Half-Chain Stitch is very effective for stems of flowers, or wherever a fine outline stitch can be used. This is made the same as the chain stitch, except that the needle is inserted just outside and to the right of the loop instead of in the end of the loop.

The embroidery should be done before the edge is cut

The embroidery should be done before the edge is cut

The embroidery should be done before the edge is cut



B. For Embroidering an Edge Straight, Scalloped or Irregular.

The stitches are the same as in "A" but should be placed close enough together so that the threads touch, making a firm edge. The embroidery should be done before the edge is cut. It can then be finished in various ways. The narrow edge can be turned back and whipped down on the wrong side, or blanket stitched just over the edge with fine cotton thread. On lingerie pieces the edge is not cut until after the first laundering. If desired the edge can be padded before working with the blanket stitch. The padding is done with a soft, coarse thread by working along the edge with either the Kensington or chain stitch, or it may be heavily "padded" by filling the space.

C. The blanket stitch is also used for working the loop and the buttonhole bar.
D. See Couching, below.
E. See Lazy Daisy or Star Stitch, .

Saturday, July 26, 2014

Which will bring the thread in position for the first stitch

Which will bring the thread in position for the first stitch

Which will bring the thread in position for the first stitch



A. To Finish the Edge of Flannel or Heavy Cloth:

Insert the needle at a point the desired depth of the blanket stitch and take one or two running stitches to the edge of the cloth, which will bring the thread in position for the first stitch. Make the first blanket stitch over these running stitches. Holding the edge of the cloth toward you insert the needle at the same point as before and bring the needle out over the thread and draw the loop thus made to the edge of the cloth. Repeat for successive stitches. For a simple finish for a flannel edge the stitches should not be placed too close together. As far apart as the depth of the stitch is a good rule, unless greater ornamentation is desired, when three, five or seven stitches may radiate from one point.


ORNAMENTAL STITCHES.
1 The chain stitch.
2 The Kensington stitch.
3 Two styles of feather stitching.
4 The herringbone stitch.
5 Three styles of blanket stitch.

Ornamental Stitches.

Ornamental Stitches.

Ornamental Stitches.


Applique. This is an ornamentation produced by cutting a design from one kind or color of cloth and placing it upon another. Very beautiful effects can be obtained, with perfect harmony of color and the proper combinations of textiles. The edge can be finished with the blanket, couching, Kensington or chain stitch.

Blanket Stitch. The blanket stitch, often erroneously called the buttonhole stitch, is used for finishing raw edges. It is worked from left to right, and the buttonhole stitch from right to left. The depth of the stitch and the space between stitches may be varied and will depend upon its use. If the thread is not fastened and joined carefully the symmetry of the stitches will be broken. A new thread must come up through the loop of the last stitch.


ORNAMENTAL STITCHES.

Friday, July 25, 2014

Fasten the thread by passing the needle through

Fasten the thread by passing the needle through

Fasten the thread by passing the needle through



Fasten the thread by passing the needle through to the wrong side and taking two backstitches.

Slip Stitch. See Blind Stitch, .

Stitching. Stitching is so called because it resembles machine stitching. It is also known as backstitching. Stitching is done by taking a stitch backward on the upper side of the cloth and a long stitch forward on the underside, making the stitches meet on the top as in machine stitching. Use a small knot in beginning. Hold the work over the cushion of the left forefinger.

Fasten the threads on the wrong side by taking several backstitches, one over the other, through one thickness of the cloth. To join threads in stitching fasten securely on the wrong side and begin with a small knot, bringing the thread through at the proper place for beginning the new stitch. It is used where strength is required, or on garments too small to go into a machine conveniently.

Running Running is done by taking up

Running Running is done by taking up

Running Running is done by taking up



Running. Running is done by taking up and slipping over an equal amount of cloth.

Running is used for seams that do not require great strength, and also for tucking. Care should be taken not to draw the thread tight enough to pucker. Make a small knot in the thread and conceal it on the wrong side or in the folds of the cloth. Hold the work in the left hand between the thumb and cushion of the forefinger; hold the needle in the work between the thumb and forefinger of the right hand. Use the wrist motion.

Thursday, July 24, 2014

The cloth may have a folded or selvedge edge

The cloth may have a folded or selvedge edge

The cloth may have a folded or selvedge edge



Overhanding. Overhanding is done by sewing closely over two edges of cloth from right to left. The cloth may have a folded or selvedge edge. Careful basting is necessary to good overhanding. The needle is placed at a right angle to the seam and should point to the chest. No knot is used; a short end of the thread is left and overhanded under. Hold the work horizontally along the edge of the cushion of the left forefinger and the thumb. Do not wind the cloth over the end of the finger. The stitches are straight on the under side and slanting on the top. Do not draw the threads tight enough to make a hard seam and also avoid a loose stitch that will not hold the edges together when the seam is opened. A deep stitch is not necessary for strength and will not look well on the right side when opened. To join the threads leave a half-inch of the old and a half-inch of the new, lay them along the edge and overhand over them.

The depth of the stitch depends upon the material to be overcast

The depth of the stitch depends upon the material to be overcast

The depth of the stitch depends upon the material to be overcast



Overcasting. Overcasting is done by taking loose stitches over the raw edge of cloth from right to left to keep it from raveling. The depth of the stitch depends upon the material to be overcast, usually an eighth of an inch is sufficient. The stitches should be twice as far apart as they are deep. The needle is inserted from the under side of the cloth and points a little to the left, making a slanting stitch. Keep the spaces even and the stitches of equal length. Always trim the edges before overcasting. Do not overcast a selvedge edge. Take only one stitch at a time and be careful not to draw the edge of the cloth.

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

And when new is stiff with much dressing

And when new is stiff with much dressing

And when new is stiff with much dressing



B. Damask Hem.

Damask is a heavy fabric woven of heavy threads of one color in which the pattern is brought out by a change in the direction of the threads, and when new is stiff with much dressing. From the very nature of the cloth it is impossible to hem well with the flat hem. The two folds of the hem are turned the desired width and the hem is then turned back flat to the cloth and creased. The edge of the hem and the crease thus formed are overhanded together with fine even stitches. When laundered this irons perfectly smooth and the stitches do not show on the right side. Do not confuse this method of hemming with the flat hem, as each has its own use.

Teachers will find the following suggestions helpful in

Teachers will find the following suggestions helpful in

Teachers will find the following suggestions helpful in



Teachers will find the following suggestions helpful in teaching the hemming stitch:

Put the needle in almost straight with the hem, not at right angles to it. Take up as little cloth on the needle as possible; bring the needle directly through the hem, making one stitch of it instead of dividing the stitch as in the blind stitch. Crowd the point of the needle under the edge of the hem. Do not insert the needle a distance from the hem, trusting to puckering it up.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Take care that the stitches are regular

Take care that the stitches are regular

Take care that the stitches are regular



A. Hemming Stitch.

Hold the hem across the cushion of the left forefinger and point the needle a little to the left across the middle of the thumb. Take up a few threads of the cloth and a few threads of the fold and draw the needle through. Take care that the stitches are regular, of equal length and of equal distance apart. Do not confuse the hemming stitch with the blind stitch, or the damask hem. Join the threads by leaving a half-inch of the old thread and a half-inch of the new to be tucked under the edge of the hem and be hemmed over.

Half-back stitching is similar to the stitching

Half-back stitching is similar to the stitching

Half-back stitching is similar to the stitching



Half-Back Stitch. Half-back stitching is similar to the stitching. The long forward stitch on the under side is three times the length of the backstitch on the upper side, and a space the length of the backstitch is left between the stitches. See Stitching, .

Hemming. A hem is a fold made by twice turning over the edge of a piece of cloth, and then sewing it down. The first fold is most important; if that is turned even there will be little trouble with the second. Trim the edge of the cloth before turning the hem. It is well to make and use a gauge of the required width. If a wide hem is turned, baste along the second fold or bottom of the hem first, and then at the top. On woolen goods or material that does not crease easily it is necessary to baste the first fold. Either bury the knot between the folds of the hem or leave one-half inch of thread and hem over it.

Monday, July 21, 2014

Place the needle under the roll on the right side

Place the needle under the roll on the right side

Place the needle under the roll on the right side



D. Gathering by Whipping a Rolled Edge.

Ruffles of lawn, linen or embroidery are sometimes put upon the edge instead of into a facing or seam, and when so placed it is desirable to avoid the raw edge on the under side. Hold the work over the left forefinger and roll the edge toward you between the thumb and forefinger. Place the needle under the roll on the right side, passing out at the top of the roll. Whip about one inch and draw up the thread. It is necessary to use a strong thread for whipping and gathering the edge of a ruffle.

In heavy material three or four threads may be put in

In heavy material three or four threads may be put in

In heavy material three or four threads may be put in



C. Gauging.

Gauging or double gathering is done by having a second row of gathering stitches of equal length and directly below those of the first (so that when both threads are drawn up the cloth lies in pleats). In heavy material three or four threads may be put in. Gauging is usually used on heavy material or on a folded edge that is to be overhanded to a band.

Sunday, July 20, 2014

And pin the points of division together

And pin the points of division together

And pin the points of division together



B. Sewing the Gathered Part to the Straight Piece.

Divide both into halves, quarters or eighths, depending upon the length, and pin the points of division together. Draw up the gathering thread to the proper length and fasten by winding over a pin. Arrange the gathers even before basting. Baste just above the gathers, holding the gathered piece next to you. Stitch just below the gathering thread.

For stroking or placing gathers use a coarse needle or a pin

For stroking or placing gathers use a coarse needle or a pin

For stroking or placing gathers use a coarse needle or a pin



A. Stroking Gathers.

For stroking or placing gathers use a coarse needle or a pin. Draw up the gathering thread just tightly enough so that the pin can be easily inserted between the gathers and fasten by winding over a pin placed at right angles to the last stitch. Begin at the left hand, placing the pin in the fold of the first stitch and stroke gently downward, holding the pin obliquely. After each successive stroke press the pleat under the thumb of the left hand. Continue the same with every stitch.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

Gathering Gathering is an uneven stitch made

Gathering Gathering is an uneven stitch made

Gathering Gathering is an uneven stitch made



Gathering. Gathering is an uneven stitch made by passing over twice as much as is taken on the needle. When the thread is drawn up this gives the appearance of fine gathering on the right side and admits of considerable cloth being gathered into a small space.

Gathering is used in joining a full part to a straight piece, as the skirt to the band, etc. Gather with a strong single thread a little longer than than the space to be gathered. Never use a double thread. If the thread becomes knotted a new thread must be put in from the beginning. Hold the cloth, as in the running stitch, with the right side toward you, using the wrist motion. Make a large knot in the thread so that it cannot slip through the cloth, and place the knot on the wrong side. At the end of the gathering slip the needle off and make a knot in the thread, that it may not pull out.

In darning with thread darn on the wrong side

In darning with thread darn on the wrong side

In darning with thread darn on the wrong side



B. Cloth Darning.

This may be done with thread, ravelings or hair. In darning with thread darn on the wrong side, with ravelings or hair on the right. Darn at right angles to the tear or cut. Continue the darning stitches on each side of the tear only far enough to strengthen the worn part, usually a quarter, sometimes an eighth of an inch, is sufficient. Continue the darn an eighth of an inch beyond the end of the tear. The repairing shows less if the rows of darning stitches are of unequal length. In darning take up the threads of cloth passed over in the preceding row, slipping the needle over one edge of the tear and under the other going one way and reversing this order going the other way. This makes the edge smooth and does not throw it up in a ridge. If the material to be darned is thin or stretches easily, place the rent over a piece of glazed paper and baste around it before darning. If the cloth is worn and thin, place a piece of cloth under and darn through the two thicknesses. Take great care not to stretch the hole or to draw the threads tight enough to pucker.

Friday, July 18, 2014

The object in darning is to repair a rent

The object in darning is to repair a rent

The object in darning is to repair a rent



Darning. The object in darning is to repair a rent, if possible so that it cannot be perceived. The warp and woof threads that have been worn away are to be rewoven into the cloth. No knots are needed. Leave a short end of thread to be clipped when the darn is finished.

A. Stocking Darning.

Stockings should be darned on the wrong side. A square hole makes a more symmetrical darn than a round one, and should be used wherever there is no widening or narrowing in the knitting, as on the leg of a stocking. A round hole is better for the heel and toe. Cut away the part that is badly worn. First put in the warp threads, taking care to take up on the needle all the little loops around the hole and making the darn symmetrical in shape. Then put in the woof threads, weaving carefully across the warp over the hole, passing over the threads that were taken up on the preceding row. Give special attention to the edge of the hole, passing first over and then under the edge, that there may be no ridge. If the hole is large or stretched out of shape, draw up the edges by whipping with fine thread. The darning stitches should extend only as far as the worn part. If the warp threads have strengthened the worn part sufficiently the woof threads may be extended only far enough over the edge to fasten securely. In darning a large hole it is sometimes wise to begin putting in the warp threads at the center first to prevent stretching. Do not draw the threads too tight, as they will shrink when washed.

On cloth that ravels badly put in two

On cloth that ravels badly put in two

On cloth that ravels badly put in two



On cloth that ravels badly put in two parallel rows of running stitches and then cut the buttonhole between the rows.

Combination Stitch. The Combination stitch consists of three little running stitches and a backstitch over the last running stitch. Take three running stitches on the needle and pull it through. Take up the last running stitch for the first of the next group of three. It is a little stronger than the running stitch.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

As the thread wears and is more liable to break

As the thread wears and is more liable to break

As the thread wears and is more liable to break



c. Caution Be sure that the thread is long enough to work the buttonhole, but not over-long, as the thread wears and is more liable to break. Use care and not break the thread, but in case this happens, take out the last few stitches, thread the needle on this short end, pass through the last purl, and fasten the thread on the under side. With the new thread fasten without a knot on the wrong side, bring through the last purl at the edge of the buttonhole and continue.

The Bar The thread being at the top of the last stitch

The Bar The thread being at the top of the last stitch

The Bar The thread being at the top of the last stitch



b. The Bar The thread being at the top of the last stitch, pass the needle down between the first and second stitch and out at the bottom of the last stitch. Put in three threads across the width of the buttonhole, bringing the thread out at the bottom of the last buttonhole stitch. Turn the cloth so that the thumb covers the thread and the buttonhole, and work the bar by bringing the needle out each time over the thread, as in the blanket stitch. Draw the purl edge toward the buttonhole. Do not put in too many stitches, as it makes the loop stand away from the buttonhole. Near the middle of the bar take one stitch through the cloth to hold it down.


METHOD OF BUTTONHOLING.

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

The simplest manner of finishing is as follows

The simplest manner of finishing is as follows

The simplest manner of finishing is as follows



C. Method of Finishing the Buttonhole.

a. The simplest manner of finishing is as follows: The buttonhole stitches at this end are at right angles to the slit, and not rounding as at the other end. After finishing the last buttonhole stitch, pass the needle down between the first and second stitch, and bring it out between the last and next to the last stitch. Draw the thread tight so as to bring the edges of the buttonhole together. Put in several stitches in the same place. Pass the needle to the under side and fasten the thread.


METHOD OF BUTTONHOLING.

Drawing them closer at the top and spreading at the bottom

Drawing them closer at the top and spreading at the bottom

Drawing them closer at the top and spreading at the bottom



b. The Fan At the end near the folded edge the round end spread the stitches like the sticks of a fan, drawing them closer at the top and spreading at the bottom. Five stitches will work nicely around the end, the third stitch being straight with the buttonhole.

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

This depends upon the kind of material in use

This depends upon the kind of material in use

This depends upon the kind of material in use



B. Working the Buttonhole.

a. The Stitch Determine how deep a stitch is necessary so that the threads will not pull out, always keeping in mind that the shorter the stitch the better the buttonhole will look. This depends upon the kind of material in use. The first stitch begins one thread beyond the end of the slit. Holding the buttonhole along the cushion of the left forefinger with the folded edge of the cloth toward the left, place the needle into the slit under the lower edge of the buttonhole and draw the needle half way through. With the needle still pointing toward the chest take up the double thread at the eye of the needle and place it under the point, passing from right to left. Draw the needle and thread out, and from you, so that the purl or twist comes to the edge of the slit. (This makes a firmer edge than when the thread is carried around the needle from left to right.) Each stitch is a repetition of the above. Place the stitches about the width of a thread apart, as this will avoid a crowded appearance and makes a firm, hard edge. Do not jerk the thread, but draw steadily and tight; otherwise the edge will be rough. Avoid stretching the buttonhole; the edges should touch when finished.

Some materials do not require overcasting

Some materials do not require overcasting

Some materials do not require overcasting



c. Overcasting With the fine thread or sewing silk begin at the lower right-hand end. The object of the overcasting is to prevent raveling while working the buttonhole and the fewer stitches which will accomplish this purpose the better. As the overcasting must be covered by the buttonhole stitch do not take over two or three threads deep and just as few stitches on each side as is absolutely necessary to prevent the loosening of the threads. Some materials do not require overcasting.

Monday, July 14, 2014

A Cutting With the buttonhole scissors cut

A Cutting With the buttonhole scissors cut

A Cutting With the buttonhole scissors cut



A. Preparation of the Hole.

a. Cutting With the buttonhole scissors cut the hole one-fourth of an inch from the folded edge and straight with the threads of the cloth.

b. Stranding The strand consists of carrying the thread along the edge of the buttonhole near enough to be easily covered by the buttonhole stitch, for the purpose of adding strength to the buttonhole. Thread two needles, one with fine thread or sewing silk and the other with coarser thread or twist, depending upon the kind of buttonhole to be made. Place a knot in the coarse thread or twist, and with the folded edge of the cloth toward the left hand, bring the needle out just below the lower right hand end of the buttonhole, which is the end farthest from the folded edge. At the other end put the needle into the cloth just below the end of the cut and bring it out just above, which will carry the thread along the edge of the buttonhole. Repeat the same on the other side bringing the thread out at the point of starting. Do not cut this thread, as this is ready to begin the buttonhole stitch after the overcasting.

This is made by working around a line instead of cutting the hole

This is made by working around a line instead of cutting the hole

This is made by working around a line instead of cutting the hole



Buttonholes. A buttonhole is a slit cut and worked to admit a button for fastening purposes. It is much easier for beginners to commence on the blind buttonhole. This is made by working around a line instead of cutting the hole. The stitch, the fan, and the finishing can thus be learned without the care of the raw edge. The directions for making the buttonhole are as follows:


STITCHES USED ON PLAIN SEWING.
1 Three styles of basting.
2 The running stitch.
3 The gathering.
4 The backstitch.
5 The half-back stitch.
6 The combination stitch.
7 The overcasting.

Sunday, July 13, 2014

Turn back the edge of the hem to the basting and

Turn back the edge of the hem to the basting and

Turn back the edge of the hem to the basting and



Blind Stitch. The blind stitch and slip stitch are used to fasten a hem lightly where it is desired to conceal the stitches. To blind stitch a hem, turn back the edge of the hem to the basting and, holding the cloth along the edge of the finger, catch first cloth and then hem with a single stitch that does not show on either side. A slip stitch is a long stitch on the wrong side and a blind stitch on the hem. It is used on the milliner's fold.

An even basting is used on hems

An even basting is used on hems

An even basting is used on hems



A. An even basting is used on hems, seams of garments, or wherever two pieces of cloth are to be held firmly together. Take up one-fourth of an inch and skip one-fourth.

B. Uneven basting is used where very careful basting is unnecessary, as in the seams of skirts, or in working on a material that clings together, as a guide for stitching. Take up an eighth of an inch and skip three-eighths. When only loose basting is required, as when holding the lining and outside together, a long stitch and two short ones may be used.

Saturday, July 12, 2014

Stitches Used in Plain Sewing.

Stitches Used in Plain Sewing.

Stitches Used in Plain Sewing.


Basting. Basting is temporary sewing used to hold the cloth in place while putting in permanent stitches. As the basting threads are to be removed, place the knot on the right side. Fasten the threads securely by taking two or three backstitches. In removing basting threads clip the threads at short intervals that they may be taken out easily. Much of the success of the work depends upon careful basting. The extra time required will be repaid ten-fold. One stitch at a time for beginners, later two or three stitches may be taken. In basting hems, baste not on the edge, but very near it. Do not baste on the line where you expect to stitch, but as near it as possible.

Description of stitches.

Description of stitches.

Description of stitches.


Stitches Used in Plain Sewing.


Stitches Used in Plain Sewing.
1. Basting.
2. Blind Stitch.
3. Buttonholes.
4. Combination Stitch.
5. Darning.
6. Gathering.
7. Half-back Stitch.
8. Hemming.
9. Overcasting.
10. Overhanding.
11. Running.
12. Slip Stitch.
13. Stitching.

Ornamental Stitches.
1. Bands.
2. Blanket Stitch.
3. Chain Stitch.
4. Couching.
5. Feather Stitch.
6. French Knots.
7. Hemstitching.
8. Herringbone Stitch.
9. Kensington Outline.
10. Lazy Daisy or Star Stitch.

Miscellaneous.
1. Bias.
2. Cloth.
3. Eyelets and Loops.
4. Joining and Fastening Threads.
5. Mitered Corner.
6. Patterns.
7. Plackets.
8. Putting in Sleeves.
9. Seams.
A. Bound Seam.
B. Flannel Seam.
C. French Fell.
D. French Seam.
E. Hemmed Seam.
10. Sewing on Buttons.
11. Sewing on Hooks and Eyes.
12. Sewing on Lace.
13. Tucking.

Friday, July 11, 2014

Electives. An exercise in paper and cardboard construction.

Electives. An exercise in paper and cardboard construction.

Electives. An exercise in paper and cardboard construction.


An exercise in paper and cardboard construction, adapted to the skill of the class, may be substituted for the Christmas Exercise. See chapter on "Paper and Cardboard Construction," .

In connection with the study of home furnishing and decoration an exercise in passepartout or the making of lamp shades would be excellent.

Exercise No. 48 Textile Fibers And Fabrics Wool.

Exercise No. 48 Textile Fibers And Fabrics Wool.

Exercise No. 48 Textile Fibers And Fabrics Wool.


Under the heading "Textile Fibers and Fabrics," , will be found subject matter which can be used in correlation with the geography, language and history work. The seventh grade subject is Wool.


A SET OF UNDERWEAR.
EXERCISES 39, 42, 46, AND AN ELECTIVE.

Thursday, July 10, 2014

In the lower right-hand corner

In the lower right-hand corner

In the lower right-hand corner



No. 3. In the lower right-hand corner, one inch from the bottom and the side cut one inch on the bias. Darn with split sewing silk on the wrong side.

No. 4. In the upper right-hand corner, one inch from the top and the side cut one inch across the warp. This will serve for a worn place in the cloth. Place the patch under it and baste around the edge. Darn with ravelings on the right side. Trim the edges of the patch smooth and herringbone stitch with ravelings around it.

Finish the edge of the piece with the blanket stitch.

Follow this exercise with the repairing of some article brought from home that will give a practical experience in cloth darning. Should there be any difficulty in securing these articles there are plenty of homes that will supply enough for the entire class. This must be done under the teacher's supervision.

Exercise No. 47 Cloth Darning.

Exercise No. 47 Cloth Darning.

Exercise No. 47 Cloth Darning.


Materials: Albatros 4" × 5"; sewing silk; needle No. 8; beeswax.

See description of Cloth Darning, .

Four holes, cut as follows, are to be darned on this piece of cloth:

No. 1. In the lower left hand corner one inch from the bottom and the side, cut one inch straight with the warp. Darn with split sewing silk on the wrong side.

No. 2. In the upper left hand corner, one inch from the top and side, cut one inch with the warp and one inch with the woof. This will serve for a three-cornered tear. Darn on the right side with ravelings. Spread the stitches at the corner like the sticks of a fan.

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

Finish the bottom of the drawer legs with one-eighth inch tucks

Finish the bottom of the drawer legs with one-eighth inch tucks

Finish the bottom of the drawer legs with one-eighth inch tucks



Finish the bottom of the drawer legs with one-eighth inch tucks, one-half inch hem-tuck and the ruffle as in Exercise No. 41. One-half inch in front of the side fold cut an opening, with the warp, four inches in length. This may be made in both legs or in the right one only, and may be finished with the gusset, placket A or placket B, keeping in mind that the back buttons over the front. Finish all seams with the French seam except where the ends of the ruffle are joined with the hemmed seam. Gather the fullness at the top on both sides of the front and the back seams, and draw up to the desired length of band. If two openings have been cut at the sides make the back band one inch longer than the front. Place buttons and make buttonholes where desired.

See the draft for the drawers pattern

See the draft for the drawers pattern

See the draft for the drawers pattern



Patterns: See the draft for the drawers pattern, . Multiply the dimensions by four. Each girl can draft a pattern from the teacher's dictation, or one pattern can be drafted and cut before class time, and the members of the class cut their patterns from this one.

A strip of muslin thirty-six inches by eleven inches will cut the drawers by careful management. The lesson in economy and the experience of cutting from a close pattern is a valuable one for the girls, as it is a problem which will confront them many times in life. Fold the cloth the short way through the center, and pin the selvedge edges together. Allow three and one-half inches from the fold for the placket facings and bands, thus keeping the extra cloth in one large piece. Pin the pattern in position, and cut the two lengths, at the same time taking care that the lengthwise fold of the pattern is straight with the warp threads. If the pattern does not allow for hem and tucks, provide the extra length when cutting. The right sides are now together; mark them before separating, and avoid the chance of making both pieces for the same leg, a mistake easily made by more experienced needlewomen.

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

The Small Drawers.

The Small Drawers.

The Small Drawers.


Materials: Bleached muslin 36" woof, 11" warp; ruffling, India linen 36" woof, 1½" warp; white thread No. 70; needle No. 8.


DRAFT FOR A PATTERN OF A PAIR OF DRAWERS.
This draft can be used for a pattern of any size. Determine the length at the side of the garment required, and divide this by 2½ and multiply all dimensions by this figure. As a small fraction complicates the process and will make very little difference in this garment, use the whole number which is nearest the quotient obtained. Fold a large piece of paper, the fold of which will represent the fold at the side of the drawers. Draw the diagram enlarged upon one side of this. The lines for both the front and back are the same, except the two inside lines at the top, which will cut the front a little smaller than the back. It is for this reason that it is drawn on the double paper.

Exercise No. 46 a Pair of Drawers.

Exercise No. 46 a Pair of Drawers.

Exercise No. 46 a Pair of Drawers.


Materials: Pupils may furnish their own materials for a full-sized garment. This may be made in any style. Patterns can be secured from the mothers or exchanged among the members of the class, or a pattern may be drafted from the diagram. Secure the pattern first and have the girls measure it to determine the amount of material needed. If there is any difficulty in securing supplies from the home, a pair of child's drawers on a smaller scale may be substituted. The directions for making the small drawers will assist in making the full-sized garment.

Monday, July 7, 2014

Exercise No. 45 Twist Buttonholes.

Exercise No. 45 Twist Buttonholes.

Exercise No. 45 Twist Buttonholes.


Materials: French flannel 3½" warp by 6½" woof; twist; sewing silk; needle No. 7 and No. 8.

See description of the Buttonhole, .

Pupils will furnish their own twist and flannel for the practice work. It is not necessary that these should match in color. Double the flannel through the center the long way, baste along the folded edge and around the piece. Overcast the raw edges. Begin one-half inch from the top and make the buttonholes three-fourths of an inch long and three-fourths of an inch apart. Strand, overcast and finish with the bar.

Exercise No. 44 a Study of Home Furnishing, Decoration And Care.

Exercise No. 44 a Study of Home Furnishing, Decoration And Care.

Exercise No. 44 a Study of Home Furnishing, Decoration And Care.


The success of this exercise will depend entirely upon the interest and ingenuity of the teacher.

See "Home Furnishing, Decoration and Care," .

Sunday, July 6, 2014

This amount will cut either the Dutch collar by piecing the band

This amount will cut either the Dutch collar by piecing the band

This amount will cut either the Dutch collar by piecing the band



Materials: Imitation linen 15" woof, 8" warp. This amount will cut either the Dutch collar by piecing the band, or the ordinary stiff collar. The patterns for both, or the collars from which patterns can be cut, can be brought from home by some member of the class. Be absolutely sure of the size before cutting out the collar, as a quarter of an inch will make a difference in the comfort and fit. It is an excellent plan to have collars of different sizes 12, 12½, 13, 13½ in the class, try them on, and mark the buttonholes on the bands from the right sized collars. The "Dutch" collar can be made with a plain hem and finished with the fine featherstitching or any of the ornamental stitches, or it can be embroidered in a simple pattern with the eyelet embroidery. This gives an excellent opportunity for an original design, or if so desired a pattern can be transferred by the use of the carbon paper. The stiff collar, if made double, is first sewed up on the wrong side and then turned and stitched along the edge on the right. It is then put into the double band, which has been made in the same way. If so desired the collar can be made of a single embroidered piece with the worked edge, or finished with the hemstitched edge and ornamented with fancy stitches.

Exercise No. 43 Collars, Jabots, Bows, Etc. Christmas Piece.

Exercise No. 43 Collars, Jabots, Bows, Etc. Christmas Piece.

Exercise No. 43 Collars, Jabots, Bows, Etc. Christmas Piece.


The styles of dressing the neck vary greatly from season to season. This is also modified by the taste of individuals. Pupils may furnish their own material for any kind of collar desired, after thoughtful consideration of the prevailing styles. It is possible to make a great variety of useful and dainty articles at a trifling expense which will be most acceptable Christmas gifts. If so intended, lead the pupils to study the appropriateness of their gifts. Those pupils who find it difficult to furnish their own material may substitute a collar made from an imitation of linen which will afford the same experience in making, but will not be quite as desirable an article to wear.

Saturday, July 5, 2014

Half-back stitch and fell the seams

Half-back stitch and fell the seams

Half-back stitch and fell the seams



Baste, half-back stitch and fell the seams. Turn the hems at the back, baste and hem. See description of the Bias, . Put the bias facing on the bottom first, then around the neck, and last around the armholes. Teach the joining of the bias facing by having the bottom facing in two pieces and then insist that the ends of the armhole facing be joined in the same way. Overhand neatly the ends of the bottom and neck facings. Make four quarter-inch buttonholes and sew on the buttons.

The Small Waist.

The Small Waist.

The Small Waist.


Materials: Bleached muslin 24" woof by 10" warp, bias facings 54" by 1"; white thread No. 70; needle No. 8.

See the draft for the pattern of the small underwaist, .

Patterns: Multiply all dimensions by four. Each girl can draft her pattern from the teacher's dictation, or one pattern can be drafted before the lesson and the members of the class cut their patterns from this one. Insist that the patterns be exact. Have the patterns pinned on, and submitted for inspection before the cutting is done, to avoid blunders and waste of material. Cut the front double. One inch has been allowed for the hem on the backs.


DRAFT FOR PATTERN OF UNDERWAIST.
This draft can be used for an underwaist of any size. Determine the length of the under arm seam in the garment required and divide this by 1¼. Multiply all dimensions by this quotient. As a small fraction complicates the process and makes very little difference, use the whole number which is nearest the quotient obtained. The slight alterations necessary can be made in the fitting.

FRONT OF CORSET COVER AND BACK OF GIRL'S UNDERWAIST.

Friday, July 4, 2014

Exercise No. 42 an Underwaist or Corset Cover.

Exercise No. 42 an Underwaist or Corset Cover.

Exercise No. 42 an Underwaist or Corset Cover.


Materials: Pupils may furnish their own materials for an underwaist such as they wear. This may be of any style. Patterns can be secured from the mothers. If there is any difficulty in securing supplies from the home, a child's waist on a small scale may be substituted.

See description of the Hemmed Seam

See description of the Hemmed Seam

See description of the Hemmed Seam



See description of the Hemmed Seam, .

Putting a ruffle into a hem-tuck and tucking: Measure up from the bottom two and one-fourth inches or twice the width of the hem-tuck plus one-fourth inch for the seam and crease with the warp, across the piece. Stitch, or run by hand an inch tuck, taking care to measure and make perfectly even. Measure up three-eighths of an inch from this stitching and crease for another tuck. Stitch, or run by hand an eighth of an inch tuck. Measure up three-eighths of an inch for another tuck. Put in a cluster of three tucks. Hem the ruffle with an eighth of an inch hem, gather and stroke the gathers.

See description of gathering and sewing a ruffle to a straight edge, .

Place the wrong sides of the cloth and ruffle together and baste to the edge extending below the hem-tuck, bringing the seam exactly to the edge of the tuck. Baste and stitch the edge of the hem-tuck over the seam of the ruffle.

Thursday, July 3, 2014

Exercise No. 41 a Trial Piece For Finishing The Bottom of a Pair of Drawers.

Exercise No. 41 a Trial Piece For Finishing The Bottom of a Pair of Drawers.

Review Divisions of the Foot and Yard Measure.
Detailed Description of Exercises.

Exercise No. 41 a Trial Piece For Finishing The Bottom of a Pair of Drawers.


Materials: India linen 8" × 8", ruffle 12" woof, 2" warp; white thread No. 70; needle No. 8.


A TRIAL PIECE, GIVING PRACTICE ON THE HEMMED SEAM, TUCKING, AND PUTTING A RUFFLE INTO A HEM-TUCK.

Hemmed Seam: One inch and a quarter from the top crease a fold with the warp. Cut on this crease.

Order of Exercises.

Order of Exercises.

Order of Exercises.


Prepare Thread Cards Cardboard 4" × 4", designed and cut for four kinds of thread.

Exercise No. 41 A Trial Piece for Finishing the Bottom of Drawers.

Exercise No. 42 An Underwaist or Corset Cover.

Exercise No. 43 Collars, Jabots, Bows, etc. Christmas Piece.

Exercise No. 44 A Study of Home Furnishing, Decoration and Care.

Exercise No. 45 Twist Buttonholes.

Exercise No. 46 A Pair of Drawers.

Exercise No. 47 Cloth Darning.

Exercise No. 48 Textile Fibers and Fabrics Wool.

, See Electives, .

Wednesday, July 2, 2014

Fifth Year Seventh Grade.

Fifth Year Seventh Grade.

Fifth Year Seventh Grade.


Course of instruction.

EQUIPMENT.
Sewing box.
Pin cushion 30 pins.
Thimble.
Needles.
Scissors.
Thread cards.
Practice Piece Unbleached muslin 12" × 9".

The Round Bottom Bag With a Fancy Raffia Covering.

The Round Bottom Bag With a Fancy Raffia Covering.

The Round Bottom Bag With a Fancy Raffia Covering.


Make the bag any size desired; a circle of three or four inches in diameter makes a practical one. Draw the pattern for the raffia covering on paper, the circle for the bottom being the same size as that of the bottom of the bag. The design for the sides may be in as many sections as desired. The tops of these sections may be shaped to suit one's taste round, pointed or fancy. When the pattern is completed baste a strand of raffia on the pattern, following the lines of the design. Then closely blanket stitch with raffia on both sides of these strands. The spaces may then be filled with fancy lace stitches.

Tuesday, July 1, 2014

Electives. Placket A may be substituted for the gusset.

Electives. Placket A may be substituted for the gusset.

Electives. Placket A may be substituted for the gusset.


Placket A may be substituted for the gusset, if desired.

A pin cushion cover may be hemstitched in place of the collar. Make this a square seven inches by seven inches, or an oblong five inches by nine inches, or any size to fit a particular cushion that can be cut from these pieces, or any size for which the pupils furnish their own material.


ROUND BOTTOM BAG WITH RAFFIA COVERING.

Pupils who desire to furnish their own materials for a linen handkerchief may substitute this for the hemstitched collar.

Basketry may be substituted for the apron, or a clipping case or a postal-card album may be made instead.

See "Paper, Cloth and Cardboard Construction," .

Exercise No. 40 Textile Fibers And Fabrics Flax.

Exercise No. 40 Textile Fibers And Fabrics Flax.

Exercise No. 40 Textile Fibers And Fabrics Flax.


Under the heading "Textile Fibers and Fabrics," , will be found subject matter which can be used in correlation with the geography, language and history work. The sixth grade subject is Flax. Make a collection of the flax products, fabrics, etc. A class set of compositions, each member of the class taking different subdivisions of the subject, would make an interesting collection which could be put together in a simple binding done by members of the class.

See "Paper and Cardboard Construction," .